The Old Norse Dictionary

The Old Norse dictionary below (from Viking Language 1) compiles everything you need to read the sagas in their original language.

Using the Norse Dictionary

The alphabetical order is: a, á, b, d, ð, e, é, f, g, h, i, í, j, k, l, m, n, o, ó, p, r, s, t, u, ú, v, y, ý, x, z, þ, æ, œ, ǫ/ø. Long vowels with accent are listed after the corresponding short vowels without accent (a, á). At the end of the alphabet, æ and œ are listed separately, while ǫ and ø are listed together.

Compound Words. When looking up a compound word, go to the initial element of the compound. Hence for landnámsmaðr look under land-; and for fyrirbjóða look under fyrir-.Defective Words. Some entries are labeled defective, meaning they lack a full set of forms in the extant sources. For example, the verb kná, has no infinitive form in any of the manuscripts. The dictionary form, kná, is the 1/3 sg (first and third person) present: kná <kná, 1pl knegum, knátti, past inf knáttu> defective pret-presvb tobe able to, can; could.

Cases in the Old Norse Dictionary

Verbs and prepositions take their objects in various cases, depending on sometimes unpredictable usage. This vocabulary adopts the Icelandic convention of using the pronoun einnhverr meaning ‘somebody’ [sb] and eitthvat meaning ‘something’ [sth] to indicate which case is used with particular verbs:

[e-n] (einhvern) = somebody [sb] acc
[e-t] (eitthvat) = something [sth] acc
[e-m] (einhverjum) = (for) [sb] dat
[e-u] (einhverju) = (for) [sth] dat
[e-s] (einhvers) = (of) [sb] or [sth] gen

Conventions Employed by the Dictionary

1.   Strong Masculine Nouns: the genitive singular and nominative plural endings are given after the nominative singular. For example, heimr <-s, -ar> m world; vinr <-ar, -ir> m friend.

2.   Adjectives: the strong masculine accusative singular is given to indicate a stem-final -j- or -v- or syncope (loss of vowel). For example, ríkr <acc ríkjan> adj powerful; døkkr <acc døkkvan> adj dark; gǫfugr <acc gǫfgan> adj noble, distinguished.

3.   Strong Verbs: the principal parts (3sg pres, 3sg past, 3pl past, and past participle) are given for each verb followed by the strong verb class in Roman numerals within parentheses. For example, fara <ferr, fór, fóru, farinn> vb (VI) to go, travel.

4.  Weak Verbs: The weak verb class is given in Arabic numerals within parentheses. Additionally, the dental suffix -að- indicates when a weak verb is 1st conjugation. For example, kalla <-að-> vb to call. For all other verbs the dental (-t-, -d-, or -ð-) is given with the ending for 3sg past and ppart, for example mæla <-ti, -tr> vb to speak. When there is a change in the stem from present to past, the Vocabulary provides the forms in full: spyrja <spurði, spurðr> vb toask. When a past tense dental is added to a verb whose stem already ends in a dental (leiða, setja and senda), the two dentals often undergo change. In such instances, the Vocabulary indicates the outcome, hence leiða <-ddi, -ddr>, setja <-tti, -ttr>, and senda <-di, -dr> (that is, past tense leiddi ‘he led,’ setti ‘he set,’ sendi ‘he sent’).

5.   Preterite-Present Verbs: are named so because their present tense looks like the past tense of strong verbs.

The Old Norse Dictionary

The symbol  marks the 246 most common words in the sagas.

— A —

Aðalráðr konungr m King Æthelred II (the unready) of England

Aðils m Adils (personal name)

aðra f acc sg & m acc pl of annarr

aðrar f nom & acc pl ofannarr

aðrirmnom pl of annarr

af prep [w dat] from; out of, of, by; off (of); with; adv off, away

afar adv extremely

afarmenni n big or strong man

afbragð n outstanding example; afbragð þeira manna allra the most outstanding of all those men

afbrigði n deviation, transgression, offense

afl n physical strength, might, power; rammr at afli extremely strong

afreksmaðr m outstanding or exceptional man

afskipta adj indecl cheated; cut off (as from inheritance)

aft see eptir

aka <ekr, ók, óku, ekinn> vb (VI) to drive

akkeri n anchor

akr <akrs, akrar> m field, crop

ala <elr, ól, ólu, alinn> vb (VI) togive birth to; bring up, raise (children)

alda gen pl of ǫld

aldauða adj indecl extinct

aldinn adj aged, old

aldir acc pl of ǫld

aldr <-rs, -rar> m age; lifetime; old age; long period of time; vera við aldr be on in years, old

aldregi (also aldri) adv never

aldri adv never

Alfǫðr see Al(l)fǫðr

alheimskr adj completely foolish

alin <alnar~álnar> f Old Icelandic ell (about half a yard); unit of value, typically of woolen cloth

alla str m acc pl, f acc sg; wk m acc/dat/gen sg, f acc sg, n all sg of allr

allar f nom/acc pl of allr

allfríðr adj very beautiful

Al(l)fǫðr (also Alfaðir and Alfǫðr) <-s> m ‘All-father,’ father of all, Odin

allirmnom pl of allr

allmikill adj very great

allr <f ǫll, n allt> adj pron all, entire, whole, all over

allra gen pl of allr

allri f dat sg of allr

allt adv completely, entirely; everywhere; allt til Orkneyja all the way to the Orkney Islands; allt til þess right up to that point; allt upp undir right up under

almenning (also almenningr, m) f common land, pasture; general public; conscription

Alrekr <-s> m Alrek (personal name)

alsnotr adj sagacious, wise (of a woman)

alsvartr adj pure black

Alþingi n Icelandic assembly, parliament

alþýða f all the people, the majority of the people, the public, the common people

ambátt (also ambótt) <pl -ir> f handmaid, maidservant

ambótt var of ambátt

andimbreath, spirit

Andvari m Andvari (personal name)

angr <gen angrs> m grief, sorrow

annanmacc sg of annarr

annarr <f ǫnnur, n annat> adj/pron one of two, other, another; ord second; annarr … annarr conj one … the other; different

annarra gen pl of annarr

aptann <dat aptni, gen aptans, pl aptnar> m evening

aptr <comp aptar(r), superl apta(r)st> adv back, again

arfi m heir

arfr <-s> m inheritance

argr adj cowardly, effeminate, (passively) homosexual

Ari <-a> m Ari (personal name) Ari fróði Ari the Learned

arinn ppart of erja (m nom sg)

armr m arm

armr adj poor, unfortunate, unhappy; vile, wretched, wicked

arnar gen of ǫrn

Arnfastr <-s> m Arnfast (personal name)

Arnórr <-s>m Arnor(personal name)

aska <acc/dat/gen sg ǫsku> f ash, ashes

askr <-s, -ar> m ash, ash tree; ash spear; small ship; the great ash tree, Yggdrasill

Assurr (also Ǫzurr) <-s> m Assur (personal name)

at prep [w dat] at, in; as to, as, with respect to; on account of, by reason of; close up to, around, by

at conj that

at inf marker to

atall <f ǫtul, n atalt> adj fierce, aggressive

Atall <-s> m Atal, name of a Viking (personal name)

atburðr <-ar, -ir> m occurrence, event; af þessum atburði because of this incident

atganga f attack

atgervimaðr var of atgørvimaðr

atgǫngu acc/dat/gen of atganga

atgørvif and n ability, talent, accomplishment; at atgørvi in ability (esp physical)

atgørvimaðr (also atgervimaðr) m man of accomplishments

atkváma f arrival

atlaga f attack; laying ships alongside for attack

atróðr <gen atróðrs> m rowing towards, rowing against

atseta f a royal residence

auðgari comp adj of auðigr richer, wealthier

auðgastr superl of auðigr richest, wealthiest

auðgi weak m nom sg of auðigr

Auðhumla f Audhumla, the primeval cow

auðigr (also auðugr) <acc auðgan> adj rich, wealthy; auðigr at fé wealthy

auðugr var of auðigr

auga <pl gen augna> neye

augun = auga + in

auk prep [w gen] aside from

auka <eykr, jók, jóku~juku, aukinn> vb (VII) toincrease, augment; [w dat] add; exceed, surpass

aurr <-s> m mud

ausa <eyss, jós, jósu, ausinn> vb (VII) topour, sprinkle; ausa [e-n]/[e-t] [e-m] sprinkle [sb/sth] with [sth]; ausa bát bail a boat

austan adv from the east

Austfirðir m pl East Fjords(place name)

Austmaðr (pl Austmenn) m person from the east, Norwegian

austr <-rs, superl austastr> n east; adv eastward

austrfǫr <pl austfarar> f (usu in pl) travels to the east

Austri m Austri (personal name)‘East’, one of the dwarves holding the sky

Austrlǫnd n pl the eastern lands; eastern Europe; Russia and the Orient

austrvegr <-s, -ir> m the east, i.e., the Baltic, lit the eastern way; fara í austrveg trading or raiding in the Baltic or journeying east and south down the rivers of Russia

austrœnn adj eastern

auvirðismaðr m worthless wretch, wretched man

— Á —

á <gen ár, pl ár, dat ám, gen á> f river

á 1/3sg pres of eiga

á prep [w acc] onto, on, towards (motion); with respect to; [w dat] on; upon; at; in (position); á morgun tomorrow

á brott adv away

á milli var of milli

áðr adv before; already; earlier; áðr en conj before, until

áeggjun <-ar> f egging on, urging

ágætr <comp ágætari, superl ágætastr> adj excellent

ágrip n collection, compendium; lítill ágripum small of size

ái <á, ár> m great-grandfather

ákafamaðr m aggressive man

ákafliga adv exceedingly, very; vehemently, impetuosly

ákafr <f ákǫf> adj fierce

ál <pl -ar> f leather strap

Álfheimr m Alfheim, World of the Elves

álfr <-s, -ar> m elf

Álim Ali (personal name); old shortening for Áleifr~Óláfr

álit n appearance

Álof f Alof (personal name)

álpt <pl álptir~elptr> f swan

Álptanes n Alptanes (place name), Swans’ Headland

álǫg n pl dues or taxes

án prep [w acc, dat, gen] without

ánni = á + inni

ár n year

árferð <pl -ir> f season, harvest

Árnes n Arness (place name)

ÁrnimArni (personal name)

ársæll adj fortunate as to the seasonal harvest; allra konunga ársælstr of all kings the most harvest-fortunate

ársælstr superl adj of ársæll most fortunate in the harvest

árvænn adj promising a good seasonal harvest

ásamt adv together

ásauðr m ewe; collectively ewes

Ása-Þórr m Thor of the Aesir

Ásbjǫrn <gen Ásbjarnar> m Asbjorn (personal name)

Ásbrú f Asbru, another name for Bifrǫst

Ásdís f Asdis (personal name)

Ásgarðr m Asgard, home, residence or fortress of the gods

Ásgerðr <acc/dat Ásgerði, gen Ásgerðar> f Asgerd (personal name)

Ásgrímr <-s> m Asgrim (personal name)

ásjá f help, aid, protection; inspection; appearance, shape

Ásmundr <-s> m Asmund (personal name)

áss <dat æsi~ás, gen áss~ásar, pl æsir, acc ásu~æsi> m god; Æsir pl one of the two major groups of gods

ást f love, affection (frequently used in plural with same meaning)

Ásta f Asta (personal name)

Ástríðr <-ar> f Astrid (personal name) Estrid

Ásvaldr <-s> m Asvald (personal name)

ásynja f goddess

át 1/3sg past of eta

átt 2sg pres of eiga; ppart of eiga (n nom/acc sg)

átta 1sg past of eiga

átta <ord áttandi~áttundi, átti, eighth> num eight

átti 3sg past of eiga

át(t)ján <ord át(t)jándi, eighteenth> num eighteen

áttu 3pl past of eiga

áttugandi ord num eighty

ávalt (also of allt) adv alwaysávanr <f ávǫn, n ávant> adj only in n and the phrase [e-s] er ávant [sth] is wanted, needed

— B —

bað 1/3sg past of biðja

baðmr <-s> m tree

bak n back

Baldr <-rs> m Baldr (personal name)

Balli (also Baldi) m Balli (personal name)

bana <-að-> vb (1)[w dat] to kill

banahǫgg n death-blow

banamaðr m killer, executioner, slayer

banasár n fatal wound, death

band <pl bǫnd> band, cord; the act of binding; pl bands, fetters; poet gods

bani m death, bane, slayer

bann n prohibition, ban

banna <-að-> vb to ban, forbid, prohibit

bar 1/3sg past of bera

bardagi m fight, battle; beating, thrashing

barð n brim of a helmet or hat; verge or edge of a hill; prow of a ship

barðisk 2/3sg past of berjask

barn <pl bǫrn> n child

barnœska f childhood

barr n foliage, often needles (of pine, etc.)

Barreyjar f pl Barra Isle in the Outer Hebrides

bart 2sg past of bera

batna <-að-> vb (1) to improve; impers [e-m] batnar one recovers

batnaði 3sg past of batna

batt 1/3sg past of binda

bauð 1/3sg past of bjóða

baugr <-s, -ar> m ring, bracelet, armlet

bauzt 2sg past mid of bjóða; bauztu = bauzt + þú

bazt superl adv var of bezt best

baztr superl adj var of beztr best

báðir <f báðar, n bæði, gen beggja > adj pron dual both

Bálki Blæingsson m Balki Blæingsson (personal name)

Bárðr <-ar> m Bard (personal name); Bárðr svarti Bard the Black; Bárðarson Bard’s son

bátr <-s, -ar> m boat

báðu 3pl past of biðja

báru 3pl past of bera

beðin(n), beðit ppart of biðja or bíða (nom sg)

beggja all gen pl of báðir

beið 3sg past of bíða

beiða <beiddi, beiddr> vb (2) [w gen] to ask, beg; beiða [e-n] [e-s] ask [sb] for [sth]; beiðask mid ask for, request on one’s own behalf

beiddisk 3sg past of beiðask

beiddusk 3pl past of beiðask

bein n bone

beinahrúga f bone-pile

beiskr adj bitter, acrid; angry, exasperated; painful, sore

beiting <pl -ar> f grazing, pasturage

bekkr <dat bekk, gen -s~-jar, pl -ir> m bench

belgr <dat belg, gen -s~-jar, pl -ir> m pelt, skin of an animal (taken off whole); skin-bag; bellows

belja <-að-> vb (1) to bellow

bella <bellr, ball, –, –> defective vb [w dat] to hit, hurt

bella <-di, -tr> vb (2)[w dat] to venture (into)

belti n belt

ben <gen -jar> f (mortal) wound

bera <berr, bar, báru, borinn/borin/borit> vb (IV) to bear, carry; give birth; bera saman collect; compare; bera um carry about; bera ørendi sín (upp) fyrir [e-n] plead one’s case before [sb]; tell one’s errand [sb]

Berfœttr n bare-foot, bare-legged

berg n boulder; cliff; mountain

bergr 2/3sg pres of bjarga

berja <barði, barðr~bariðr> vb (3) to strike, beat; berjask mid fight

berr adj naked, bare; unsheathed (of a sword)

berserkr <-s, -ir> m berserker

berserksgangr <-s> m fury of a berserker, going berserk

betr comp adv of vel, better

betri comp adj of góðr, better

beysta <beysti, beystr> vb (2) to bruise, beat

beytill <-s> m horse-prick, horse penis; horse or male sexual member; Equisetum hyemale, rough horsetail, a common fescue grass in Iceland, also called in English scouring rush and scouring rush horsetail, resembles a horse penis; góibeytill appears in Landnámabók.

bezt (also bazt) superl adv of vel best

beztr (also baztr) superl adj of góðr best

biðja <biðr, bað, báðu, beðinn> vb (V) to ask, request; beg; command, tell; wish; biðja [e-n] [e-s] ask [sb] for [sth]; biðja gera command to be made

bifask <-ði, -ðr also -að-> vb mid (1) to shake, tremble, quake; be moved

Bifrǫst f Bifrost, rainbow bridge that connects Miðgarðr and Ásgarðr

bikkja f female dog, bitch

bila <-að-> vb (1)to fail

Bilskírnir m Bilskirnir, Thor’s hall

binda <bindr, batt, bundu, bundinn> vb (III) to bind, tie, fasten; bind up (a wound); pledge; binda í [e-u] bind to [sth], bind on [sth]

birnir nom pl of bjǫrn

bíða <bíðr, beið, biðu, beðinn> vb (I) [w gen] to wait for, remain, abide; [w acc] suffer, undergo

bíta <bítr, beit, bitu, bitinn> vb (I) to bite, bite through; rip apart

bjalla <gen bjǫllu, pl bjǫllur> f bell

bjarg <pl bjǫrg> n rock, boulder; cliff

bjarga <bergr, barg, burgu, borginn> vb (III)[w dat] to save, help

Bjarnardóttir f Bjorn’s daughter (personal name)

Bjarnarfjǫrðr m Bjorn’s Fjord (place name)

Bjarni m Bjarni (personal name)

bjartr <f bjǫrt, n bjart; comp bjartari, superl bjartastr> adj bright

bjó 1/3sg past of búa

bjóða <býðr, bauð, buðu, boðinn> vb (II) [w acc] to offer; [w dat] invite; order, command; bjóða [e-m] sætt offer [sb] reconciliation; bjóða [e-n] [e-m] at sætt offer [sth] to [sb] for reconciliation

bjuggu (also bjoggu) 3pl past of búa

bjǫrn <dat birni, gen bjarnar, pl birnir, acc bjǫrnu> m bear

Bjǫrn <dat Birni, gen Bjarnar> m Bjorn (personal name); Bjǫrn buna Bjorn buna

blanda <blendr, blétt, bléndu, blandinn; also -að->vbmix, blend, blanda [e-t][e-u] mix [sth] with [sth]; also blanda [e-u] við [e-t]

blautr adj soft; soaked, wet

blár <f blá, n blátt> adj blue; dark, black; blátǫnn (nickname) ‘Bluetooth’

blása <blæss, blés, blésu, blásinn> vb (VII) to blow

Bleking f Blekinge, Denmark (place name), now part of Sweden

blendu 3pl pres of blanda

blét(u) 3sg past(pl) of blóta

blindr adj blind

blíðr adj happy

blóð n blood; blóðøx (nickname) ‘Bloodaxe’

blót n sacrifice

blóta <blœtr, blét, blétu, blótinn> vb (VII)[w acc] to worship; worship with sacrifice; [w dat] sacrifice, sacrifice in worship

blóta <-að> vb (1) [w acc] to worship; worship with sacrifice; [w dat] sacrifice, sacrifice in worship; curse

blótuðu 3pl past of blóta (vb)

blunda <-að> vb (1) to shut the eyes, doze

Blængr <-s> m Blaeng (personal name)

blœtr 2/3sg pres of blóta

boða <-að-> vb (1) to proclaim, preach at boða kristni to preach Christianity; [w dat] order, summon

boðinn ppart of bjóða

bogi m bow

bokki (also bǫkki) m buck, fellow (used as a manner of address); bokki sæll my good fellow, good sir, boss

Bolli m Bolli (personal name)

boløx f broad-axe

borð f board, plank; side of a ship ship (larboard and starboard); board, table; board, food, upkeep; á borð on one side (of a ship)

borg <pl -ir> f stronghold, fortification; town

Borg f Borg (place name)

Borgarfjǫrðrm(place name)

borgarmaðr m garrisoned soldier; townsman

borgit ppart of bjarga (n nom/acc sg)

borinn/borin/borit ppart of bera

bóandi <pl bóendr> m var of bóndi

bógr <dat bœgi, gen bógar, pl bœgir, acc bógu> m shoulder of an animal

bók <gen bókar~bœkr, pl bœkr> f book

ból n lair

bóndi (also bóandi & búandi) <gen bónda, pl bœndr> m husband; farmer; head of a household

bót <pl bœtr> f bettering, cure, remedy; adornment; pl compensation, atonement; at bótum as atonement

brann 1/3sg past of brenna

Brattahlíð f Brattahlid (place name), Steep-Slope

brauð n bread

braut var of brott

braut 1/3sg past of brjóta

brautflutning <pl -ar> f carrying off

brauzk 1,2,3sg past of brjótask

brauzt 2sg past of brjóta

brá <gen brár, pl brár> f eyelash

brá 1/3sg past of bregða

bráðgǫrr adj matured early in life, precocious

bráðr <n brátt> adj sudden; hot-tempered, hasty

bráðum adv soon, shortly

brásk 1/3sg past mid of bregða

brátt adv soon, suddenly; brátt er as soon as

bregða <bregðr, brá, brugðu, brugðinn> vb (III) [w dat] to move quickly; draw, brandish (a weapon); break (faith or an oath); turn, alter, change; break off, leave off, give up; bregða við [e-u] to ward off with, parry with [sth]; bregðask mid fail, come to nothing; bregðask [e-m] deceive, disappoint [sb]; bregðask í [e-t] shapechange, turn into [sth]

breiða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to spread; stretch; display

Breiðablik n Breidablik, hall of the god Baldr (place name)

Breiðafjarðardalir m pl Dales of Breidafjord (place name)

Breiðafjǫrðr m Breidafjord, Broad Fjord (place name)

breiðara comp adv of breitt, more broadly

breiðr <f breið, n breitt> adj broad

breitt adv broadly

brekka f slope

brenna <brennr, brann, brunnu, brunninn> vb intrans (III) to burn

brenna <-di, -dr> vb trans (2) to burn

brenni 3sg/pl pres subj of brenna

bresta <brestr; brast, brustu, brostinn> vb (III) to burst, break, crash; bresta niðr crash down

Brísingamen n necklace of Freyja

brjóst n chest, breast

brjóta <brýtr, braut, brutu, brotinn> vb (II) tobreak, break up, break open; brjótask mid of brjóta; brjótask til ríkis fight for the kingdom; see brauzt; brauzk

Brodd-Helgi <-s> m Spike-Helgi (personal name)

broddr <-s, -ar> m spike, see mannbroddr

brotna <-að-> vb (1) tobreak

brott (also (á/í) brottu, burt & (í) braut) adv away, off

bróðir <acc/dat/gen bróður, pl brœðr, dat brœðrum, gen brœðra> m brother

bróðurdóttir f brother’s-daughter, niece

bróðurgjǫld n pl wergeld, ransom, or compensation for a dead brother

brunnr <-s, -ar> m well; spring

brutu 3pl past of brjóta

brú <gen brúar, pl brúar~brúr~brýr, dat brúm> f bridge; causeway built over swampy ground

brúðfénbride’s fee or gift

brúðkaup n wedding feast

brúðlaup n wedding feast

brúðr <acc/dat brúði, gen brúðar, pl brúðir> f bride; poet woman

brúnn adj brown

bryggja f pier; dock; quay, gangway [sometimes carried on ships]; in some instances, a bridge in the pl as a series of piers with pilings forming a long gangway

byggja (also byggva) <bygði, bygðr> vb (2) to settle; occupy; inhabit, dwell

bryggurnar f pl nom and acc, see bryggja

Brynhildr f Brynhild (personal name)

brynja f chain-mail shirt

brynjulauss adj without armor

brytimsteward, person in charge of food supply; bailiff

brœðr nom/acc pl of bróðir

brœkr f pl breeches

buna f buna (nickname of uncertain meaning, perhaps ‘one with ungartered stockings,´ i.e., hanging down his leg)

Buri m Buri (personal name), grandfather of Odin

burlufótr m clumsy-foot (meaning uncertain)

burr <-ar, -ir> m poet son

burt var of brott

(also ) <dat pl búm> n home, house, household; farm; estate

búa <býr, bjó, bjoggu~bjuggu, búinn> vb (VII) to live (in a place), dwell, inhabit, live; prepare, make ready; arrange; búask mid prepare, get oneself ready; búask til [e-s] prepare oneself for [sth]; búask um make oneself secure, prepare

búandi <pl búendr> var of bóndi

buð f booth; cabin; dwelling

búfén cattle

búimdweller, inhabitant

búinn ppart of búa ready, prepared

búizk ppart of búask (búit + sk)

Búseyra f Buseyra, a giantess killed by Thor

búss m type of wood

bygð f abode

bygði 3sg past of

byggðisk 2/3sg past mid of byggva~byggja

byggt ppart of byggva (n nom/acc sg)

byggja var of byggva

byrðr f burden

byrja <-að-> vb (1) to begin

byrr <-jar, -ir> m fair wind

(var of ) <dat pl býum> n home, house, household; farm; estate

býðr 2/3sg pres of bjóða

býfluga f bee

bæði adv both; bæði … ok conj both … and

bæðinof báðir

bær var of bœr

bœgi dat sg of bógr

bœn f prayer, request

bœr (also bær) <gen bœjar~býjar, pl bœir, dat bœjum, gen bœja> m farm, farmhouse, farmstead; landed estate; town

bœta <-tti, -ttr> vb (2) to better, make compensation

Bǫðvarr <-s> m Bodvar (personal name); Bǫðvarr Bjarki one of King Hrolf’s champions

bǫkki var of bokki

bǫl <gen pl bǫlva> n misfortune

bǫlvasmiðr m contriver of mischief, misfortune

Bǫlþorn <-s> m Bolthorn, ‘Thorn of Bad Luck,’ father of Bestla

bǫrðusk 3pl past mid of berja

bǫrn pl of barn

Bǫrr m Bor (personal name), son of Buri and father of Odin

— D —

daga <-að-> vb (1) to dawn

dagmál n nine in the morning

dagr <dat degi, gen dags, pl dagar> m day; í dag today; um daginn eptir (on) the day after, the next day; lifetime

dagsmark n day-mark, time of day

Dala-Kollson m son of Dala-Koll (Kollr personal name), Koll of the Dales from Dalir)

Dalir m pl (Dalir, place name) Dales; dala gen pl of dalir; Dalar pl nom an old form of the word

dalr <dat dal, gen dals, pl dalir/dalar~dalir> m valley, dale

dalr <gen dalar> m poet bow

Danavirki n Danevirke (place name) ‘Wall of the Danes’, fortification across southern Jutland

Danir m pl Danes

Danmarkar gen of Danmǫrk; Danmarkarbót (nickname) ‘Denmark’s Adornment’, Betterment, Enhancement

Danmǫrk <gen Danmarkar> f Denmark

danskr adj Danish

datt 1/3sg past of detta

dauðr <f dauð, n dautt> adj dead

daufr adj deaf

dautt n nom/acc sg of dauðr

dáð f deed

Dáinsleif f Dainsleif, name of Hogni’s sword, ‘Dain’s Inheritance’

detta <dettr, datt, duttu, dottinn> vb (III) to drop, fall

deyja <deyr, dó, dó, dáinn> vb (VI) to die

djarfr <f djǫf, n djarft> adj bold, daring

djúpauðigr/djúpauðga adj deep-minded

djúpvitr adj deep-witted, resourceful

1/3sg & 3pl past of deyja

Dómaldim Domaldi (personal name)

dómr <-s, -ar> m court; judgement (whether favorable or unfavorable); renown

dómstaðrmplace where court is held

dóttir <acc/dat/gen dóttur, pl dœtr, dat dœtrum, gen dœtra> f daughter

draga <dregr, dró, drógu, dreginn> vb (VI) topull, draw, drag; dragask mid move, draw oneself, be drawn

drakk 1/3sg past of drekka

dramblæti n pride, haughtiness

drap 1/3sg past of drepa

drapt 2sg past of drepa

drasillmpoet horse

draumr <-s, -ar> m dream; henda mikit gaman at draumum take great interest in dreams

draup 1/3sg past of drjúpa

dráp n killing, murder

drápu3pl past of drepa

dreginn ppart of draga

dregit ppart of draga

dreifa <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to spread, scatter; dreifask mid be spread out

dreki m dragon-ship

drekka <drekkr, drakk, drukku, drukkinn> vb (III) to drink

drekkja <-ti, -tr> vb (2) [w dat] to submerge; fig suppress; impers [e-m] drekkir [sb] is drowned

drengiligr adj brave, valiant

drengr m bold man

drepa <drepr, drap, drápu, drepinn> vb (V) to slay, kill, smite; strike, beat, knock; drepa [e-u] í [e-t] stick [sth] into [sth]

Drepstokkr <-s> m Drepstokk (place name)

dreyma <-ði~di, -t> vb (2) [w acc subj and obj] to dream; [e-n] dreymr [e-t] impers [sb] dreams [sth]

dreyra <-ði, -t> vb (2) to bleed, ooze (of blood from a slight wound)

drífa <drífr, dreif, drifu, drifinn> vb trans (I) to drive; intrans crowd, throng, drift, hurry

drjúpa <drýpr, draup, drupu, dropinn> vb (II) to drip

Droplaugarsynir m pl sons of Droplaug

drógusk 3pl past of dragask

dróttinn <dat dróttni~drottni, gen dróttins, pl dróttnar~drottnar> m lord

dróttning <dat dróttningu, pl dróttningar> f queen

drykkr <-jar, -ir> m drink

dræpi 3sg/pl past subjunct of drepa

duga <-ði, dugat> vb (4) to do; show prowess; suffice, fare duga verr fare worse (in a contest); be useful

dunði 3sg past of dynja

dúfa f dove, pigeon

dvelja <dvaldi, dvaldr~dvalinn> vb (3) to slow, stop

dvergr <-s, -ar> m dwarf

dynja <dundi~dunði, dunit> vb (3) to din, thunder, resound, whir, whizz; pour, shower

dyrr <pl dat durum, gen dura> f pl door, doorway

dys <-jar> f cairn

dýja <dúði, dúit> vb (3) to shake

dýr n wild beast; animal; deer

dœma <-di~ði, -dr~ðr> vb (2) to judge

dœmðir m nom pl ppart of dœma

dǫgg <dat dǫgg~dǫggu, gen dǫggvar, pl dǫggvar> f dew

dǫgum dat pl of dagr

Døkkálfar (also Dǫkkálfar; sg -alfr) m pl Dark Elves

døkkr <m acc sg døkkvan, m nom pl døkkvir, m acc pl døkkva, f acc sg døkkva, f pl døkkvar> adj dark

— E —

eða (also eðr) conj or; (introducing a question) but

eðr var of eða

ef conj if

efniligr adj promising

efri (also øfri) comp adj upper, inner; latter

efstr (also øfstr) superl adj uppermost, innermost; last

egg <gen pl eggja> n egg

egg <pl eggjar> f edge, blade´s edge

eggja <-að-> vb (1) to incite, goad, egg on, urge

eggskurn f egg shell

Egill <dat Agli, gen Egils> m Egil (personal name)

Egilsstaðir m pl Egilsstadir (place name) Egil’s Farmstead

eiðrofi adj indecl perjurer

eiga <á, átti, áttr> pret-pres vb to own, have, possess; marry, be married or related to; aux must, owe, be obligated, have to, need to; eiga ráðagørð take council

eigi adv not; no

eign <-ar, -ir> f property, possession

eigna <-að-> vb (1) to attribute, dedicate; mid eignask get, claim, take, become the owner of

eignaðisk 3sg past mid of eigna

eignazk ppart mid of eigna

eik <-ar, -r> f oak, tree

Einarr m Einar (personal name)

eingi var of engi

einheri <-ja, -jar> m great champion (addressing Thor); einherjar pl slain warriors who dwell in Valhǫll

einmæli n private talk

einn <f ein, n eitt, ord fyrstr, first > num one; indef pro a, an; a certain one; adj alone (when placed after the noun it modifies, einn can take on the meaning ‘only’); some; merely

einnhverr adj pron some, someone, a certain one; (usu as two words, einn hverr) each, each one; einnhvern dag one day

einskipa adv with one ship

einu n dat sg of einn

einvaldi m sole ruler, monarch, sovereign

einvaldskonungr m sole ruler

Eiríkr <-s> m Eirik (personal name)

Eiríksfjǫrðr m Eiriksfjord (place name), Eirik’s Fjord

eista n testicle

eitthvat adj pron some, something, a certain one

eitthvart see einnhverr

ek <acc mik, dat mér, gen mín> pron I

ek 1sg pres of aka

ekkert late var of engi/enginn (n nom/acc sg)

ekki n nom/acc sg of engi

ekki adv not

ekr 2/3sg pres of aka

eld(a)skálimfire hall, main hall of a long house, where benches used for sitting and sleeping were warmed by a long fire that ran the length of the hall and was used for cooking

elding f last part of the night before dawn

eldr <-s~ellds~ellz, -ar> m fire

elfr <acc/dat elfi, gen elfar, pl elfar> f great river

Elfráðr inn ríki m Alfred the Great (personal name)

elgr <gen elgs~elgjar, elgir> m elk

elli f age

ellifu (also ellefu) <ord ellifti, eleventh> num eleven

ellri comp of gamall older, elder

ellztr (also elztr, elstr) superl of gamall, oldest, eldest

ellstr var of ellztr

elr 2/3sg pres of ala

elska <-að> vb (1) tolove; elskask love one another, elskask at [e-m] grow fond of [sb]

elztr var of ellztr oldest, eldest

em 1sg pres of vera

en conj but; and (in a contrastive sense); [w comp] than

en er conj but, when

en þó adv nevertheless

enda conj and; and if; even; even if; and also, and so; and yet; by the way

endi (also endir) <-is, -ar> m end

endir var of endi

endlangr adj whole length of

endr adv again, once more

engi <f engi, n ekki> indef pron no one, none, no; engir menn no one

engill <-s, -ar> m angel

engis var of enskis

Englakonungr m king of England

England n England

Englarmpl the English

engir m pl nom of engi

engrar fgen sg of engi

enkis var of enskis

enn adv yet, still; moreover

enni n forehead

enskis (also engis~enkis) m/n gen sg of engi

enskr adj English

ept var of eptir

eptir (also ept) prep [w acc] after (in time); in memory of; [w dat] after, along; according to; eptir landinu along the coast; adv after, afterwards, behind; standa eptir or vera eptir stay back, remain behind; eptir þetta after that, afterward

eptri (also aptari) comp adj farther back; latter

epztr (also aptastr) superl adj farthest back; last

er (older es) rel particle who, which, that; conj and adv when; where; þar er there where; while; as, at

er 3sg pres of vera

ér/þér pl pron of þú you; ér = þér; see þér

erendi (also ørendi, erindi) n errand, mission, its result

erfa <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to throw a funeral feast; inherit

erfiðin trouble, effort

erindi var of erendi

erja <er, arði, arinn> vb (3) to plough; scratch, scrape

Erlingr <-s> m Erling (personal name)

ert 2sg pres of vera; ertu = ert + þú

eru 3pl pres of vera

es older form of er

eta <etr, át, átu, etinn> vb (V) to eat

ey <dat ey~eyju, gen eyjar, pl eyjar> f island

eyða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to waste; spend; do away with, destroy; make empty; eyðask mid be squandered, come to naught

eygr adj ‘-eyed’, having eyes of a certain kind

eyna acc sg of ey+in, the island

eykr 2/3sg pres of auka

eykt fthree in the afternoon

eyra <pl eyru> n ear

eyri var of eyrr

eyrir <acc/dat eyri, gen eyris, pl aurar, acc aura, dat aurum, gen aura> m ounce of silver or gold

eyrr (also eyri) <acc/dat eyri, gen eyrar, pl eyrar> f gravelly riverbank; small spit of land running into the sea

eyrun = eyru + in, see eyra

Eyrbyggjar  m pl Settlers of Eyri (place name, see eyrr)

Eystrasalt n Baltic Sea

eystri comp adj of austr more eastern

Eystribyggð f Eastern Settlement (place name), part of Norse Greenland

Eyvindr <-ar> m Eyvind (personal name)

— F —

faðir <acc fǫður, dat fǫður~feðr, gen fǫður, pl feðr, dat feðrum, gen feðra> m father

fagr <f fǫgr, n fagrt, comp fegri, superl fegrstr> adj beautiful, fair, attractive

fagrt adv fairly

fala <-að-> vb to demand for purchase; fala [e-t] af [e-m] to offer to buy [sth] from [sb]

Falhófnir m Falhofnir (personal name) ‘Hidden-hoof’ (hidden by hair), or ‘Pale-hoof’, horse of the Æsir

falla <fellr, fell~féll, fellu~féllu, fallinn> vb (VII) tofall; be killed; fallask mid fail

fann 1/3sg past of finna

fannsk 3sg past of finnask

fara <ferr, fór, fóru, farinn> vb (VI) to go, travel; move; fara at go, proceed; put an end to; fara frá leave, back off, back away

farmaðr m seaman, seafarer, merchant

farmr m cargo

farþegi m passenger on a voyage

fast adv firmly

<fær, fekk, fengu, fenginn> vb (VII) to get, obtain, take, procure; grasp; give; deliver; get a chance to, be allowed to, be able to; [w gen] marry, fekk konu got married, lit got a wife; fá góðar viðtǫkur receive a good welcome

Fáfnir m Fafnir, a son of Hreidmar who turns himself into a dragon, brother of Regin

fáir m nom pl of fár

fála f witch, hag; ‘frightener’ (nickname)

fáláðr adj silent, reserved, taciturn

fár <f fá, n fátt, comp fær(r)i, superl fæstr> adj pron few; cold, reserved; fátt manna few men, lit few of men

fásénn adj rare

fátt see fár

fátœkr (also fátækr) adj poor, wretched

feðgar m pl father and son(s)

feginn adj glad, joyful

fegr comp adv of fagrt more beautifully, more fairly


fegrstr <f fegrst, n fegrst> superl adj of fagr most beautiful, most fair, most attractive

feigr adj fated to die

feitr adj fat

fekk 1/3sg past of

fela <felr, fal, fálu, fólginn> vb (IV) to hide, conceal

fell n hill, mountain

fell 1/3sg past of falla

fella <-di, -dr> vb (2) tofell

fellu 3pl past of falla

fen <gen pl fenja> n a fen, a quagmire, bog, swamp; a wide deep pool

fengit ppart of (n nom/acc sg)

fengu 3pl past of

ferð <pl -ir> f journey; conduct, behavior

ferma <-da, -dr> vb (2) to load, ferma [e-t] með [e-u] load [sth] with [sth]

ferr 2/3sg pres of fara

fertugandi ord num fortieth

feti m strider, stepper, pacer (name for a horse)

<gen fjár, gen pl fjá> n cattle, sheep; livestock; wealth, money; can include property

félagimpartner, comrade, companion, friend

félítill adj short of money, poor

fémætr adj valuable

fénu = + inu

féþurfi adj indecl ‘in need of money’

fimm <ord fimmti, fifth > num five

fim(m)tán <ord fim(m)tándi, fifteenth> num fifteen

fim(m)ti ord num fifth

fim(m)tíu <ord fim(m)tugandi> num fifty

fingr <gen fingrar~fingrs, pl fingr> m finger

finna <finnr, fann, fundu, fundinn> vb (III) tofind; discover; come across; finnask mid be found, be perceived, noticed; impers [w dat subj] be found, perceived, noticed by [sb]; fannsk mǫnnum orð um, and people commented on/about

FinnrmFinn (personal name)

firði dat sg of fjǫrðr

firr comp adv of fjarri further

first superl adv of fjarri farthest

fiskr m fish

fjaðralauss adj without feathers, featherless

fjaðrhamr m feather skin, coat, shape

fjall <pl fjǫll> n mountain

fjara <pl fjǫrur> f ebb-tide, ebb; shore, beach

fjarri <comp firr, superl first> adv far off

fjándi <gen fjánda; pl fjándr> m enemy

Fjón f Fyn, Denmark (place name)

fjórði ord num fourth

fjórar f nom/acc of fjórir

fjórir <f fjórar, n fjǫgur, m acc fjóra, dat fjórum, gen fjǫgurra, ord fjórði, fourth > num four

fjórtán <ord fjórtándi, fourteenth> num fourteen

fjórum dat pl of fjórir

fjǫðr ffeather

fjǫgur n nom/acc pl of fjórir

fjǫlð f multitude; poet [w gen] plenty of


fjǫlkunnigr adj skilled in magic

fjǫlkyngifmagic, the black art, witchcraft, sorcery

fjǫlmennr adj in a large group, numerous; with many people, well-attended

fjǫlmennt adv in crowds, in large numbers

fjǫr <dat fjǫrvi> n life

fjǫrðr <dat firði, gen fjarðar, pl firðir, acc fjǫrðu> m fjord

fjǫrlausn f ransom for one’s life; release from life

fjǫrsegi m life-morsel, heart

fjǫru acc/dat/gen of fjara

flagð <pl flǫgð> n ogress, giantess

flaki m wicker-work shield, barrier, or covering

flakka <-að-> vb (1) toroam, wander about (as a shepherd with his sheep)

flaska f flask; flǫsku-skegg bottle-beard (nickname); flǫsku-bakr bottle-back (nickname)

flatnefr adj flat-nosed (nickname)

flaut 1/3sg past of fljóta

flá <flær; fló, flógu; fleginn> vb (VI) to flay; strip (of clothes and of money)

fleginn ppart of flá

fleinn m pike, spear; dart, shaft; fluke of an anchor

fleiri comp adj of margr more

flestr superl adj of margr most

fljóta <flýtr, flaut, flutu, flotinn> vb (II) tofloat; skipit flaut the ship floated (at anchor)

fljúga <flýgr, fló~flaug, flugu, floginn> vb (II) to fly

Flosi m Flosi (personal name)

fló 1/3 sg past of fljúga

flǫskubakr m (nickname) Flask-Back

flutt ppart of flytja

fluttu 3pl past of flytja

flutu 3pl past of fljóta

fylgja <-di~ði, -dr, ðr> vb [w dat] to follow, accompany; help, side/go with

flygir see flygja

flytja <flutti, fluttr> vb (3) to convey, move, carry; bring, deliver; tell, recite

flýgr 2/3sg pres of fljúga

flýja <-ði, flýðr~flýiðr> vb (2) to flee

fnasa <-að-> vb (1) to snort

forðum adv formerly, of old

foringimcaptain, commander, leader

formaðr (pl formenn) mcaptain, leader, chieftain, lit fore-man

formálimstipulation, condition; preamble, foreword, preface

forn adj ancient, old

forráð n administration, management; til forráða for rulership

fors <pl -ar> m waterfall

forstjórimoverseer, leader

forstreymis adv downstream

fólginn ppart of fela

fólgit ppart of fela

fólk n folk, people; poet battle

Fólkaðr (also Fólkvarðr) <-ar> m Folkad (personal name)

fór 1/3sg past of fara

fóru 3pl past of fara

fóstr <gen fóstrs> n fostering of a child; taka til fóstrs take as a foster child; vera at fóstri be a foster-child, be in a fostering relationship

fóstri m foster-son, foster-father

fótr <dat fœti, gen fótar, pl fœtr, acc fœtr> m foot, foot and leg

fram <comp fremr~framar, superl fremst~framast> adv forward; further on

framan adv from the front; framan í hann in his face

framar (also fremr) comp adv of fram farthest forward

framast (also fremst) superl adv of fram farthest forward

framaverk n great deed

frami m courage, boldness; fame, distinction; luck, advantage

frauðnfroth; juice

frá prep [w dat] from; about; adv away, away from; í frá away; þaðan frá from that point onward

frák = frá ek from fregna

fránn adj gleaming

fregna <fregn, frá, frágu, freginn> vb (V) to hear of, be informed; ask; frák (frá ek) I heard

fregnvíss adj curious

freista <-að-> vb (1) [w gen] to try, make trial of

fremr var of framar

fremst var of framast

frest n delay, respite; ljá [e-m] fresta give [sb]; respite

Freydís <acc/dat Freydísi, gen Freydísar> f Freydis (personal name)

freyða <-ddi, -tt> vb (2) to foam, froth

Freyja f fertility goddess

frétt <pl -ir> f news

friðstefna f peace meeting

friðr <dat friði, gen friðar> m peace

Frigg f Frigg, a goddess, wife of Odin

frilla f mistress, concubine

fríðastr superl of fríðr

fríðr <f fríð, n frítt> adj beautiful, handsome, fine

frost n frost

Fróði m Frodi (personal name)

fróðleikr m knowledge, magic, witchcraft

fróðr <n frótt> adj wise

frumvaxta adj indecl ‘in one’s prime’, early come into one´s prime’, full-grown

frú <frú~frúar, frúr> f mistress, lady

frægðf fame, renown

frægradj well-known

frændi <pl frændr> m kinsman, relative, friend

frœðamaðr <-manns, -menn> m learned man

frœði (also fræði) f knowledge

Frøysteinn (also Freysteinn) <-s> m Froystein (personal name)

fugl <-s, -ar> m bird

fuglakyn f family or species of bird

fuglarǫdd (fuglsrǫdd))f speech of birds (speech of a bird)

fullr adj full

fullsteikinn ppart fully roasted

fundinn ppart of finna (m nom sg)

fundnir ppart of finna (m nom pl)

fundr <-ar, -ir> m meeting; gathering; finding, discovery; koma á fund [e-s] come to a meeting with [sb]

fundu 3pl past of finna

funi m flame

fúna <-að-> vb (1) to rot, decay

fúni 3sg/pl pres subjunct of fúna

fúss adj eager fúss [e-s] eager for [sth]

fylgð f help, support; guidance; party, followers

fylgja <fylgði, fylgt> vb (2) [w dat] to accompany; follow; help, side with

fylki n province

fylkja <-ti, -t> vb (2) [w dat] to draw up (in battle array)

fylla <-di, -dr> vb (2) to fill; complete; fulfill

fyr var of fyrir prep for, in memory of

fyrir (also fyr) prep [w acc/dat] before, in front of; along; against; before, preceding, ago; above, superior to; for, on behalf of; because of; instead of; by, by means of; [w acc only] in spite of, against; [w dat only] at the head of (leading); fyrir borð overboard; fyrir fram [w acc] forward; fyrir innan [w acc] inside; fyrir neðan [w acc] below; fyrir ofan [w acc] above; fyrir útan [w acc] outside; out beyond; fyrir adv ahead, in front, before; first, before; at hand, present; vera þar fyrir be there present; fyrir því at conj because; [of place] fyrir austan in the east; east of; fyrir vestan in the west; [of time] í fyrra vetr last winter; lítill fyrir sér insignificant

fyrirbjóða <-býðr, -bauð, -buðu, -boðinn> vb (II)to forbid

fyr(ir)nema <-nemr, -nam, -námu, -numinn> vb (IV) to deprive one of speech, make silent

fyrr comp adv before, previously, sooner; at first; fyrr en conj before, sooner than, until

fyrri comp adj former, previous; comp adv (= fyrr) before, previously, sooner; rather than

fyrrum adv formerly, before

fyrst superl adv of fyrr first

fyrstr superl adj of fyrri first

fyrstr ord first

fýsa <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to urge

fær 3sg pres of

fær(r)i comp adj of fár fewer

fœddi 3sg past of fœða

fœddisk 2/3sg past of fœðask was born; grew up

fœða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to feed; rear, bring up; fœða upp bring up; fœðask mid grow up, be brought up; be born; feed oneself, be fed; fœðask upp grow up, be brought up; fœðask við [e-t] to live on [sth]

fœra <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to bring, present, convey, send, give

fœtr nom/acc pl of fót

fǫður acc/dat/gen sg of faðir

fǫðurkyn n father’s kin

fǫðurmóðir m father’s mother, grandmother

fǫðursystir f father’s sister, aunt

fǫgrf nom sg of fagr

fǫrf fare, journey; expedition

fǫrum 1pl pres of fara

— G —

gaf 1/3sg past of gefa

gakk imp of ganga go!, walk!

gala <gelr, gól, gólu, galinn> vb (VI) to scream; howl; crow; chant

galeið <pl galeiðr~galeiðir> f galley

galnir ppart of gala (m nom pl)

galtar<gen> m see gǫltr

gamall <acc gamlan, f gǫmul, n gamalt, comp ellri~eldri, superl ellztr~elztr~ellstr~eldstr> adj old

gaman <dat gamni> n game, sport; pleasure, enjoyment, delight, joy

gamli see gamall

Gamli m Gamli, the Old One (personal name)

ganga <gengr, gekk, gengu, genginn> vb (VII) to walk; go; ganga af leave, go from; ganga á [e-t] encroach upon [sth]; ganga til go up to, go toward

ganga <gen gǫngu> f walk, go, move, course, procession

Gangleri m Gangleri (mythological name) Wanderer, false name adopted by the Swedish king Gylfi

garðr <-s, -ar> m enclosed space, yard; fence; court; stronghold, castle

garpr <-s, -ar> m bold, daring, courageous, or warlike man or woman

gat 3sg past of geta

gata <gen gǫtu, pl gǫtur> f way, path, road

gaumr m attention, heed; gefa at [e-u] gaum pay attention to [sth]

Gautarmpl the Goths

Gautr <-s> m Gaut (personal name)

gáfu 3pl past of gefa

gás <gásar, gæss> f goose

gefa <gefr, gaf, gáfu, gefinn> vb (V) togive, grant

gefandi <gefanda, gefendr> m giver

gefit ppart of gefa (n nom/acc sg)

gegn (also í gegn) prep [w dat] against

gegnum (also í gegnum, í gǫgnum) prep [w acc] through

geirr m spear

Geitir <-is> m Geitir (personal name)

gekk 1/3sg past of ganga

geldingr <-s, -ar> m wether, gelded sheep

gengr 2/3sg pres of ganga

gengu 3pl past of ganga

gera (also gøra) <-ði, -ðr > vb (2) to make; do, act; gera sér mikit um [e-n] make much of or admire [sb]; gerask mid become, come to pass, occur, happen

gerða <-ð> vb to fence in

gerði 3sg past of gera

gerðisk 3sg past mid of gera

gerðu 3pl past of gera

gert var of gǫrt

gestr <-s, -ir> m guest

geta <getr, gat, gátu, getinn> vb (V) to get; beget [w gen] speak of, mention; [hon] man láta getit [she] will have it told; þess er getit impers it is told; [w ppart of another verb] be able to; geta veiddan fisk be able to catch fish; impers [w dat subj] getask at [e-m/e-u] like, love [sb/sth]

geyja <3pl past gó> defective vb to bark; geyja á [e-n] abuse [sb]

gildr adj worthy, great; of full value; [w dat] valued at

Gimlé m Gimle, hall inhabited by Light Elves

ginning f deception, tricking

Ginnlaug <-ar> f Ginnlaug (personal name)

Ginnungagap n Ginnungagap, yawning or gaping void, primeval void from which the world is created

gipta <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to give away in marriage

Gizurr m Gizur (personal name) Gizurr inn hvíti Gizur the White

gígja f fiddle (nickname)

gína <gínr, gein, ginu, ginit> vb (I)to  gape, yawn

gísl m bailiff; warder; hostage

gjald n tribute; payment; reward; compensation; wergeld

gjalda <geldr, galt, guldu, goldinn> vb (III)to  pay, repay; give; [w gen] pay for, suffer on account of

gjalla <gellr, gall, gullu, gollinn> vb (III) to yell, scream

Gjallarbrú f Gjallarbru (place name) Gjǫll Bridge, bridge on the way to Hel

Gjallarhorn n Gjallarhorn, Yelling Horn, horn blown by the god Heimdall to announce the beginning of Ragnarok

gjarn adj eager, willing

gjarna (also gjarnan) adv eagerly, willingly, very much

gjósa <gýsr, gaus, gusu, gosinn> vb (II) to gush, burst out; erupt

glaðmæltr adj cheerful in speech

glaðr adj glad, cheerful

Glenr m Glen (personal name)horse of the Æsir or the husband of Sól (Sun)

gleypa <-ti, -tr> vb (2)to swallow

Glitnir m Glitnir, silver hall belonging to the god Forseti

glóa <-að-> vb (1) to glow, shine, glitter

glymja <glymr, glumdi, glumiðr> vb (3) to dash noisily, clatter, rattle, clash

gnaga <-að-> vb (1)to  gnaw

gnesta <gnestr, gnast, gnustu, gnostinn> vb (III) to crack, clash

Gnitaheiðr f Gnitaheath, the health where Fafnir, as a dragon, lies upon great wealth

gnúa <gnýr, gneri, gneru, gnúinn> vb (VII) to rub

goð n god, one of the pagan gods (see also guð)

goðimchieftain; priest

goðorðn chieftaincy

Gormr <-s> m Gorm, first king of the Jelling dynasty in Denmark (personal name)

gott see góðr

góðan m acc sg of góðr

góðr <f góð, n gott; comp betri, superl beztr> adj good

gólf n floor

graðungr (also griðungr) <-s, -ar> m bull

grafa <grefr, gróf, grófu, grafinn> vb (VI) to dig

Gramrmname of a sword


Grani m Grani, name of Sigurd’s horse

grannligr adj slender, slim

graptar see grǫptr

gras n grass; herb

Grágás f ‘Grey-Goose’, laws of early Iceland

grár adj gray; spiteful, malicious

gráta <grætr, grét, grétu, grátinn> vb (VII) to weep, cry

grátr <-s> m weeping

greiða <-ddi, ddr> vb (2) to comb, unravel; prepare; speed, hasten; pay

Grettir m Grettir (personal name)

grey <gen pl greyja> n dog, greyhound; bitch

grét 1/3sg past of gráta

grið n pl terms of peace

griðamark n token of peace

griðungr var of graðungr

Grikland n Greece, Byzantine Empire

Griklandseyjar f pl Greek Islands

Griklandshaf n Aegean Sea

grimmastr superl of grimmr most cruel, mose severe

grimmr adj cruel, savage; severe, stern

gripr <-ar, -ir> m (costly) thing, treasure

Grímr <-s> m Grim (personal name)

Grímnir <-s> m Grimnir (personal name) ‘Masked One’, one of Odin’s names

grípa <grípr, greip, gripu, gripinn> vb (I)to grasp, seize

grjót n stone; hail of stones

gróa <grœr, greri~grøri, greru~grøru, gróinn> vb (VII) to grow; heal

grund f green field; ground; poet the earth, green earth; Atals grund land of Atal (kenning for ‘sea’)

grunnr <-s, -ar> m bottom (of the sea or other body of water)

græða (also grœða) <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to make grow; heal; increase

Grœnland n Greenland

Grœnlendingr <-s, -ar> m Greenlander

grœnn adj green

grœr 2/3sg pres of gróa

grǫf <gen grafar; pl grafir~grafar> f pit; grave

grǫftr var of grǫptr

grǫptr (also grǫftr) <dat grepti, gen graptar> m digging, burial

guð m God; n god, one of the pagan gods, usu used in pl (see also goð)

Guðbjǫrg <acc/dat -bjǫrgu, gen -bjargar> f Gudbjorg (personal name)

Guðbrandr <-s> m Gudbrand (personal name)

Guðmarr <-s> m Gudmar (personal name)

Guðormr <-s> m Gudorm (personal name)

Guðrún <-ar> f Gudrun (personal name)

Guðrøðr <-s> m Gudrod (personal name)

gufa f steam, vapor

gull n gold

gullband n golden collar

gullbaugr m gold ring

gullhring n gold ring

gullhyrndr adj golden-horned, with horns of gold

gullrekinn ppart inlaid with gold

Gulltoppr m Gulltopp (personal name) ‘Gold Tuft’ or ‘Gold Mane’, horse of the Æsir

Gunnarr <-s> m Gunnar (personal name)

Gunnfúss <-ar> m Gunnfus (personal name)

Gunnhildr <acc/dat Gunnhildi, gen Gunnhildar> f Gunnhild (personal name)

Gunnlaugr <-s> m Gunnlaug (personal name)

Guthormr <-s> m Guthorm (personal name)

Gyða f Gyda (personal name)

gyðja f priestess

gyldr adj gilded; hafði gyldan hjálm had a gilded/golden helmet

gyldr ppart of gylla

Gylfi m Gylfi, king in Sweden, name of a Viking (personal name)

gylla <-di~ti, -dr~tr > vb (2) togild

Gyllir m Golden or Yeller (mythological name) horse of the Æsir and a jǫtunn name

gyrða <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to gird, put on

Gyrgir m Gyrgir, Greek general Georgios Maniakes

gýgr f giantess

Gýríðr <acc/dat Gýríði, gen Gýríðar> f Gyrid (personal name)

gæfumunr m difference in fortune, turn or shift of luck

gæta <gætti, gætt> vb (4) [w gen] to watch, tend, take care of

gætir <-is, -ar> m keeper, guard

Gætir <-ir> m Gaetir (personal name)

gǫfugr <m acc gǫfgan, comp gǫfgari, superl gǫfgastr> adj noble

gǫgnum var of gegnum

gǫltr <dat gelti, gen galtar, pl geltir, acc gǫltu, gen galta> m boar, hog

gǫngu see ganga

Gǫngu-Hrólfr m Hrolf the Walker (personal name)

gøra (also gera, gørva)<gørði, gørðr~gǫrr> vb (2)

gørði 3sg past of gøra

gǫr f sg & n nom/acc pl of gǫrr

gǫrr (also gerr, gørr) <acc gǫrvan> adj and ppart of gøra; accomplished, skilled; done

gǫrt n nom/acc sg of gǫrr

— H —

haf n sea, the high sea; vestr um haf westwards over the sea

hafa <hef(i)r, hafði, haft> vb (2) to have; hold, keep; take; hafa [e-t] í hendi hold [sth] in one’s hand; hafa [e-t] með sér take, bring [sth] with one; hafask mid live, dwell; hafask at occupy oneself with [sth], do, undertake

hafði 3sg past of hafa

hafðisk 3sg past mid of hafa

hafr <gen hafrs, pl hafrar> m goat

HafrsfjǫrðrmHafrsfjord (place name); í Hafrsfirði in Hafrsfjord

hafskip n ocean-going ship

hagi m field, meadow

hagliga adv neatly, adeptly, skillfully

hagr adj skilled, handy

hagr m state, condition, affairs; fate; means

hagr m state of, condition; fate; affairs; advantage; means; ef galtar hag vissi if they should learn the fate of the boar.

Haki m Haki (personal name)

haklangr adj long-chinned

halda <heldr, helt~hélt, heldu~héldu, haldinn> vb (VII)[w dat] to hold; keep, retain; halda undan fly, flee; halda sveit hold command over a troop; halda upp hold up; halda við [e-m] stand or hold against [sth]; haldask mid hold out, last, remain in force [such as a judgement]

Halla <acc/dat/gen Hǫllu> f Halla (personal name)

Halland n Halland, Denmark (place name), now part of Sweden

Hallbjǫrn m Hallbjorn (personal name)

Hallfríðr f Hallfrid (personal name)

Hallgerðr <acc/dat Hallgerði, gen Hallgerðar> f Hallgerd (personal name)

Hallkatla <acc/dat/gen Hallkǫtlu> f Hallkatla (personal name)

hallr <f hǫll, n hallt> adj leaning, sloping; hallr í gǫngu stooped, walking with a stoop

Hallvarðr <-s> m Hallvard (personal name)

hallæri n famine

hamarr <dat hamri, gen hamars, pl hamrar, acc hamra, dat hǫmrum, gen hamra> m hammer

hamr <dat hami~ham, gen hams, pl hamir> m skin, shape

hana acc sg of hon

handa gen pl of hǫnd, see also til handa

handan prep on the other side of

hann <acc hann, dat honum, gen hans> pron he

hans poss pron his

hans gen of hann

hanzki m glove

Haraldr <-s> m Harald (personal name); Haraldr blátǫnn Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark (958–987); Haraldr harðráði Harald the Ruthless, Norwegian King (1045–1066); Haraldr hárfagri Harald Fairhair (also Haraldr lúfa Harald Shaggyhair) Norwegian king who reigned from ca. 860–930; Klakk-Haraldr Klakk-Harald

harðhugaðr adj ruthless, resolute

harðr <f hǫrð, n hart> adj hard, difficult, severe

harðráðr adj hard in council; ruthless; tyrannical,

harðskeytr adj hard shooting, of an archer

Hasvimýrar m pl Hasvimyrar (place name)

Hati m Hati, wolf that pursues the moon

Hattar see Hǫttr

haugr <-s, -ar> m burial mound

haukr <-s, -ar> m hawk

hauss m skull

haust n autumn, harvest season

hausta <-að> vb (1) to draw near to autumn

Hábrók f Habrok (personal name)

hádegi n midday, noon

Háey f the Island of Hoy (place name)

Hákon <-ar> m Hakon (personal name); Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson m Earl Hakon, son of Grjotgard, Stone-Fence; Hákon Hlaðajarl Hakon, Earl of Lade

Hálfdanarhaugar m pl Halfdan’s mounds

Hálfdanr <-ar> m Halfdan (personal name); Hálfdanr svarti Halfdan the Black, 9th century Norwegian king and father of Harald Shaggyhair/Fairhair

Hálfdanarhaugar m pl Halfdan’s mounds

hálfr adj half

hálfsagðr <f hálfsǫgð> adj half-told

háls <gen háls, pl hálsar> m neck

hánum var of honum

hár <f há, n hátt, dat pl há(vu~fu)m, comp hæri, superl hæstr> adj high, tall, long; loud

HármHigh, one of the three interrogators of King Gylfi

hár n hair

hárfagr adj fair-haired (nickname)

hásæti n high-seat, throne, seat of honor

hátt adv loudly; hafa hátt make an outcry

háttatal n list of meters or verse forms

háva f acc sg strong of hár

hávu n dat sg of hár

heðan (also héðan) adv from here, hence; heðan af from now on, henceforth

Heðinn (also Héðinn) <acc Heðin, dat Heðni, gen Heðins> m Hedin (personal name); Héðinn Hjarrandason m Hedin Hjarrandi’s son

hefir 2/3sg pres of hafa [also hefr]

hefði 3sg/pl past subjunct of hafa

hefja <hefr, hóf, hófu, hafinn> vb (VI)to lift up, raise, heave; hence to begin, esp hefja upp + acc [hefja upp kvæði to begin to recite a poem]; to hold, open an event [hefja blót hold sacrifices, begin the season of sacrifices]

hefna <-di, -dr> vb (2) [w gen] to avenge, take revenge

hegat var of hingat

Heiðarbær (also Heiða(r)býr)mHedeby (place name) trade center in Denmark

heiðinn <m acc heiðinn> adj heathen, pagan

Heiðmǫrk f Heidmork (place name)

heiðr <acc/dat heiði, gen heiðar, pl heiðar> f heath, moor

Heiðrún m Heidrun, goat that gives mead in Valhǫll

heilagr <f heilǫg, n heilagt; m acc helgan> adj holy; protected

heill adj hale, sound, healthy, unscathed; healed; blessed, happy; whole, complete

heilsa <-að-> vb (1) [w dat] to greet

heim adv home, homeward (motion toward)

heima adv home, at home (position)

heiman adv from home

Heimdallr <-s> m watchman god, who guards the rainbow-bridge; one of the Æsir

heimr <-s, -ar> m world; earth

Heimskringla f ‘Orb of the World’, work by Snorri Sturluson

heimta <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to recover; claim

heit n promise

heita <heitr, hét, hétu, heitinn> vb (VII) to call, give a name to; call, call on; (intrans w pres heitir) be called, be named; [w dat] promise

heiti n name; synonym

heitir 2/3 sg pres of heita (intrans)

heitr adj hot

Hekja f Hekja (personal name)

hel <dat helju, gen heljar> f Hel, realm of the dead, separate from Valhalla, and ruled over by a goddess of the same name; death; ljósta í hel to strike into hel

heldr comp adv rather; [after neg] on the contrary; heldr við aldr rather old, on in years

Helga f Helga (personal name)

Helgadalr <-s> m Helgadal (place name) Helgi’s Valley

Helgi m Helgi (personal name)

helgistaðr m holy place

hella <gen pl hellna> f flat stone, slate

hellusteinn m flat slab of rock, flagstone

helmingr m half; í helminga in halves; equally

helzk 1/3sg past of haldask

helzt superl adv most rather, most of all

henda <hendi, -dr> vb (2) to catch, pick up, reach; henda [e-t] augum catch [sth]; henda mikit gaman at [e-u] take great interest in [sth]

hendi dat of hǫnd

Hengjankjapta f Hengjankjapta, giantess killed by Thor

hennar gen sg of hon her, hers

henni dat sg of hon

heppinn adj lucky, fortunate; Leifr inn heppni Leif the Lucky

hepta <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to bind, fetter; hold back, restrain

herað (also hérað) <pl heruð~herǫð> n district, country

herðar f pl shoulders, upper part of back

herfang n booty; at herfangi as booty

herja <-að-> vb (1) to raid, harry; make war

Herjólfr <-s> m Herjolf (personal name)

Herjólfsfjǫrðr m Herjolfsfjord (place name), Herjólf’s Fjord

Herjólfsnes n Herjolfsnes (place name), Herjolf’s Headland

Herjólfssonar m gen ‘of the son of Herjolf’

herkonungr m warrior-king

Herlu-Bjarni Arnfinnsson m Herlu-Bjarni, son of Arnfinn (personal name)


hernaðr <-ar> m plundering, raid

herr <-jar, -jar> m army, troops

hersir <-is, -ar> m regional military leader in Norway; chieftain; hersins m sing gen of the leader

herskapr m harrying, warfare

hertogi m commander; duke

hervápn n pl weapons

hestr <-s, -ar> m horse; stallion

heygja <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to bury in a mound

heyra <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to hear

héðan var of heðan

Héðinn var of Heðinn

hér adv here (position)

hérað var of herað

hét 1/3sg past of heita

Hildrf Hild (personal name) battle

Himinbjǫrg n pl Himinbjorg, place where Bifrǫst enters Ásgarðr

himinn <dat himni, gen himins, pl himnar> m sky; heaven

himintungl n heavenly body

hingat (also hegat) adv to here, hither; hingat til hitherto, up to this time, until now

hinn <f hin, n hitt> dem pron the other one; á hinn fótinn on the other foot

hinn, hin, hit art = inn, in, it


hirðf king’s or earl’s bodyguard; the king’s men, retainers

hirða <-rði, -rðr> vb (2) to mind, care for, hide, conceal; keep in a box or chest

hirðir <-is, -ar> m herdsman

hirðmaðr (pl hirðmenn) m king’s man, retainer

hirtirnpl of hjǫrtr

hitt n nom/acc sg of dem pron hinn

hitta <-tti, -ttr> vb (2) to meet with, hit upon; hit; hittask mid meet one another

Hjaðningavíg n Fight of the Hjadnings

Hjaðningr <pl Hjaðningar> m a Hjadning

hjalt n hilt; sword guard; pommel

Hjalti m Hjalti (personal name)

HjarðarholtnHjardarholt, Herd’s Hill (place name)

hjarta <pl hjǫrtu> n heart

hjartablóð n heart’s blood

hjá prep [w dat] by, near, beside; with, at one’s place; in comparison with

hjálmr <-s, -ar> m helm, helmet

hjálp f help

hjálpa <helpr, halp~hjalp, hulpu, hólpinn> vb (III) [w dat] to help, save

Hjálprekrmlegendary king

hjó 1/3sg past of hǫggva

Hjǫrdís <-ar>f Hjordis (personal name)

hjǫrtr <dat hirti, gen hjartar; pl hirtir, acc hjǫrtu> m hart, stag

hlaupa <hleypr, hljóp, hljópu~hlupu, hlaupinn> vb (VII) to leap, spring; run; hlaupa at [e-m] leap at, assault [sb]

hlaut 1/3sg past of hljóta

Hleiðargarðr m Hleiðargard, the court of Hrolf kraki

Hleiðra (Hleiðr) m modern Lejre in Denmark; royal seat of king Hrolf Kraki

Hliðskjálf f Hlidskjalf, the seat on which Odin sits in his hall Valaskjálf

hlíð <pl -ir> f mountain-side, slope

Hlíðarendi m Hlidarendi, Slope’s End (place name)

hlíf <pl hlífar> f shield, cover, protection

hlífa <-ði, -t> vb (2) [w dat] to protect, shelter; show mercy

hlífðit = hlífði + t (negative suffix)

Hlífsteinn <-s> m Hlifstein (personal name)

hljóta <hlýtr, hlaut, hlutu, hlotinn> vb (II) to be allocated, receive

hljóp 1/3sg past of hlaupa

hljópu (also hlupu) 3pl past of hlaupa

hló 1/3sg past of hlæja

Hlórriðimpoet Thor

hluti m part

hlutr <-ar, -ir> m lot; thing; share, allotment; part

hlæja <hlær, hló, hlógu, hleginn> vb (VII) to laugh

hníga <hnígr, hné~hneig, hnigu, hniginn> vb (I)to  sink, fall gently

hnúka <-ði~ti, -ðr~tr> vb (2) to sit cowering

hnykkja <-ti, -tr> vb (2) [w dat] to pull violently, yank

hof n temple (frequently a name for a farm)

Hof n Hof (place name)

Hofsland n Hof estate

Hofsverjar m pl people of Hof

holr <m acc holan> adj hollow

holt n wood, forest; rough stony hill or ridge

hon <acc hana, dat henni, gen hennar> pron she

honum (also hánum) dat sg of hann

horfa <-ði, horft> vb (2) to turn, look (in a particular direction); horfa á [e-t] look at [sth]

horfinn ppart of hverfa

horn n horn, drinking horn; corner

horskr adj wise

hóf n moderation; judgement

hóf 1/3sg past of hefja

hófsmaðr m man of moderation

hófu 3pl past of hefja

hógværr adj gentle

hóll (var of hváll) <-s, -ar> m hill, hillock, knoll

Hóll <-s> m Hol, hill (place name)

Hólmfastr <-s> m Holmfast (personal name)

Hólmgarðr <-s> m Holmgard (place name, modern Novgorod)

Hólmgarðsfari m voyager to Hólmgarðr

Hólmgautr <-s> m Holmgaut (personal name)

Hólmgeirr <-s> m Holmgeir (personal name)

hraðfara adj indecl swift

hrafn <-s, -ar> m raven

hráki <-a, -ar> m spittle

hregg n storm, storm and rain

hreða (also hrœða)f menace; disturbance

Hreiðarr <-s> m Hreidar (personal name)

Hreiðmarr <-s> m Hreidmar (personal name); the father of Otr, Fafnir and Regin

hreinn adj fresh; pure; clean; bright

hreinn <-s, -ar> m reindeer

hreystimaðrmvaliant man, champion

Hringaríki n Hringariki (place name) Ringerike

hrista <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to shake

hríð <pl -ir> f time, while; storm or tempest; attack, battle; litla hríð for a little while

hrím n hoar frost, rime

hrímsteinn m rimy stone

hrímþurs m frost-giant

hrímþursum dat pl of hrímþurs

hrís n shrubbery, brushwood

Hrotti m name of a sword

Hróðgeirr <-s> m Hrodgeir (personal name)

Hrólfr <-s> m Hrolf (personal name); Hrólfr kraki Hrolf Kraki, legendary Danish king

hrósa <-að-> vb (1)[w dat] to praise; boast (of)

hrukku 3pl past of hrøkkva

Hrungnir <-s> m Hrungnir, giant killed by Thor with his hammer

hrútr m ram

Hrútr <-s> m Hrut (personal name) Ram

Hrútsstaðir m Hrutsstadir (place name) Hrut’s Farmstead

hrynja <hrundi, hruninn> vb (III) to fall, collapse; flow, stream; fall loosely (of clothing); látum und honum hrynja lukla let keys jingle about him; hrynja á hæla [e-m] shut the door on [sb]

hræ <pl gen hræva> n dead body, corpse, carrion

hræddr adj afraid, frightened

hræða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2)[w acc] to frighten; hræðask mid be frightened; hræðask [e-t] be afraid of [sth]

Hrœrekr <-s> m Hroerek (personal name)

hrøkkva <hrøkkr~hrekkr, hrǫkk, hrukku, hrokkinn> vb (VII) to fall back, recoil

hugkvæmr adj clever, crafty

hugr <dat hug~hugi, gen hugar, pl hugir> m mind; mood, heart, temper

hugsjúkr adj distressed, anxious, worried

hulðu 3pl past of hylja

hunang n honey

hunangsfallf honey-dew

hundr <-s, -ar> m hound, dog

hundrað <pl hundruð> n hundred (usu followed by noun in gen) (tólfrætt hundrað = 120, tírætt hundrað = 100)

hungr <-rs> m (n in younger texts) hunger; svelta hungri starve, die of hunger

hún late var of hon

hús n house


húsbóndi m husband; master of the house (from hús + bóndi)

húsfreyja (also hýsfreyja) f housewife, lit house-lady

húskarlm servant,farmhand, houseman [house-carle]; king’s man, retainer, follower

hvaðan adv from where, whence

hvalkváma f stranding of a whale

hvalnum dat sg w art hvalr + inum, the whale

hvalr <gen hvals, pl hvalar~hvalir> m whale

hvalrif n whale-rib

hvar interrog adv where; hvar sem wherever

hvargi adv everywhere; hvargi sem wherever, wheresoever

hvass <f hvǫss, n hvasst> adj sharp, keen

hvat interrog pron what

hváll (also hóll) <-s, -ar> m hill, hillock, knoll

hvárgi <n hvárki~hvártki> adj pron neither (of two); conj hvárki…né neither…nor

hvárki n of hvárgi

hvárr interrog pron who, which (of two); indef pron each (of two)

hvárrtveggi indef pron each of the two

hvárt interrog adv whether; hvárt sem~hvárt er conj whether

hvártki see hvárgi

hvárumtveggjum dat pl of hvárrtveggi

hveim dat of a defective pron to whom, for whom

hver f nom sg / neut nom/acc pl of hverr

hverfa <hverfr, hvarf, hurfu, horfinn> vb (III)to be lost, be missing; disappear

Hvergelmir m Hvergelmir Seething Well, home of Niðhǫggr and source of the rivers in Niflheimr

hvergi (also hverrgi) pron each, every one

hvergi (also hverrgi) adv nowhere; [w gen] nowhere on; hverrgi var nowhere was

hverir m nom pl of hverr

hverju n dat sg of hverr

hverjum m dat sg & pl dat of hverr

hvern m acc sg of hverr

hvernig (also hvernug)adv how

hverr <f hver, n hvert> interrog pron who?, which?; indef pron each, every, all; geyja at hverjum manni, bark at each man

hverrgi see hvergi;

hversu interrog adv how, just how

hvert adv to where, whither; hvert er whithersoever

hvetja <hvet, hvatta, hvǫttu, hvattr> vb (3) to whet, sharpen; encourage

hvé adv how

Hvinir m Hvinir (place name)

hví interrog adv why

hvítr <f hvít, n hvítt, comp hvítari, superl hvítastr> adj white

hyggja <hugði, hugðr~hugaðr> vb (3) to think, believe; hyggja at [e-u] look at, consider [sth]

hygði 3sg/pl past subjunct of hyggja

hykk = hygg ek

hylja <hulði~huldi, huliðr~huldr> vb (3) to bury, cover over, conceal, hide

hylli f loyalty, allegiance, favor

Hyrrokkin f Hyrrokkin, a giantess killed by Thor

hýsfreyja (var of húsfreyja) f housewife

Hærukollr m Grey-Streak (nickname)

hæstr superl adj of hár highest

hætta <-tti, -tt> vb [w dat] (2) to risk, stake

hœgr adj easy, convenient

hœgri comp adj of hœgr right; on the right; the right hand

hœla <-di, hœlt> vb (4) [w dat] to praise, flatter, boast of

Hœnir m Hoenir, god

hœta <-tti, -ttr> vb (2) to threaten

hǫfðingi <gen -ja, pl -jar> m leader; chieftain; captain

hǫfn <gen hafnar, pl hafnir> f holding, possession; harbor

hǫfuð <dat hǫfði, pl dat hǫfðum, gen hǫfða> n head

hǫfuðsbani m death

hǫfuðstaðr m chief place; capital

hǫgg <dat hǫggvi> n blow, stroke, chop; beheading, execution

hǫgg 2sg imper of hǫggva

hǫggspjót n broad-bladed spear

hǫggva <høggr, hjó, hjoggu~hjuggu, hǫgg(v)inn> vb (VII) to strike (a blow), chop, hack, hew

hǫggvi 3sg/pl subjunct of hǫggva; dat sg of hǫgg

Hǫgni m Hogni (personal name)

hǫll <dat hǫllu, gen hallar, pl hallir> f hall

Hǫllu see Halla

hǫnd <acc hǫnd, dat hendi, gen handar, pl hendr, dat hǫndum, gen handa> f hand; af hendi [e-s] on behalf of [sb]

hǫrð f nom & n nom/acc pl of harðr

Hǫrða-Knútr <-s> m Horda-Knut (personal name)

Hǫrðaland n Hordaland (place name)

hǫrr <dat hǫrvi~hǫrr> m flax, linen

Hǫskuldr <-s> m Hoskuld (personal name)

Hǫskuldsstaðir m pl Hoskuldsstadir Hoskuld’s Farmstead (place name)

Hǫttr <dat Hetti, gen Hattar> m Hott (personal name) Hood (the Masked One)

— I —

iðjumaðr m hard-working man

igða f nuthatch

illa <comp verr, superl verst> adv badly, ill

illr <comp verri, superl verstr> adj bad, evil

illska f badness

illtf evil (treatment)

Ingibjǫrg <gen Ingibjargar> f Ingibjorg (personal name); Ingibjǫrg Hróðgeirsdóttir ins hvíta Ingibjorg, daughter of Hrodgeir the White

Ingjaldr <-s> m Ingjald (personal name); Ingjaldr tryggvi Ingjald the True

Ingólfr <-s> m Ingolf (personal name)

inn <comp innarr, superl innst> adv in, into (motion toward)

inn, in, it art the

inna <-ti, -tr> relate, tell; inna til [e-s] make mention of [sb]

innan prep [w gen] within; inside, indoors; innan adv from within, outward

innanlands adv within the land, at home (as opposed to abroad)

inni adv within, inside; in-doors

it n of inn


í prep [w acc] into (motion); during (time); [w dat] in, within, at (position)

í braut (also í brott) adv away

í gǫgnum var of gegnum

í móti var of móti

í nánd adv nearby

í samt adv in a row

í sundr adv asunder

í því adv at that time


Írakonungr m King of the Irish

Írland n Ireland

írskr adj Irish

Ísland n Iceland

Íslendingabók f Book of the Icelanders

íslenzkr adj Icelandic

íss <gen íss, pl ísar> m ice

Ívarr <-s> m Ivar (personal name)

— J —

jafn <f jǫfn, n jafnt> adj even, equal

jafna <-að-> vb (1) to smooth, even out, tidy, trim; make equal (in comparisons), equate; jafna [e-u] til [e-s] liken [sth] to [sth]

jafnan adv always; constantly, equally

jafnberr adj equally exposed, naked, or unprotected

jafndjúpvitr adj as deep-witted, as deep-scheming, as resourceful

jafngamall adj as old, of the same age

Jafnhár m Just-as-High, one of three interrogators of King Gylfi

jafnmikill adj equally great

jafnungr adj as young

jarðar gen sg of jǫrð

jarl <-s, -ar> m earl

jarlsríkin earldom

jartegn n token, evidence, proof (of a thing)

járn n iron

Jófríðr <acc/dat Jófríði, gen Jófríðar> f Jofrid (personal name)

jól n pl Yule, Yuletide, great midwinter feast in heathen times, later applied to Christmas

Jórvík f York (place name)

Jótland n Jutland (place name); Jótlandshaf ‘Jutland Sea’, Kattegat

jǫkull <dat jǫkli, gen jǫkuls, pl jǫklar> m glacier; ice; icicle

jǫrð <dat jǫrðu, gen jarðar; pl jarðir> f earth; land, ground

Jǫrð f Earth, as goddess and mother of Thor

JǫrmungandrmJormungand, name of the Midgard Serpent, the world serpent

jǫtunheimar m pl land of giants

jǫtunn <dat jǫtni, gen jǫtuns, pl jǫtnar> m giant

— K —

kaðall <dat kaðli, gen kaðals, pl kaðlar> m cable, twisted rope

kaðla acc pl of kaðall

kafna ˂-að-˃ vb to be suffocated, choked

kala <kell, kól, kólu, kalinn> vb (VI) impers [w acc] to freeze

Kaldbak nCold-Back Mountain

Kaldbeklingar m pl men of Kaldbak

kaldr <f kǫld, n kalt> adj cold

kalla <-að-> vb (1) to call, name; say

kallaðir ppart of kalla (m nom pl)

kallaðr ppart of kalla (m nom sg)

kambr <-s, -ar> m comb

kann 1/3sg pres of kunna

kanna <-að-> vb (1) to search, explore, find out about; to know, recollect; kannask við [e-t] recognize [sth]

kappi m champion

karfimfast coastal rowing ship

karl <-s, -ar> m man; old man; Þorsteinn karl old Thorstein, old man Thorstein

Karlstefni m Karlstefni (personal name)

kasta <-að-> vb (1) to throw, cast

kaupa <keypti, keyptr> (4) vb tobuy

kaupmaðr (pl kaupmenn) m merchant

kaupstefna f market

Kári Sǫlmundarson m Kari Solmundarson (personal name)

kátalaktús see Michael kátalaktús

kátr adj cheerful

KeilafKeila, a giantess killed by Thor

kemr 3sg pres of koma

kenna <-di, -dr> vb (2) to know, recognize; feel; attribute; teach

kennimaðr <-manns, -menn> m priest, cleric; lit teacher

kenningfpoetic periphrasis or metaphor


kent ppart of kenna

ker n vat, tub, vessel

kerling f old woman

ketill <acc ketil, dat katli, gen ketils, pl katlar, acc katla, dat kǫtlum, gen katla> m kettle, cauldron, pot

Ketill <-s> m Ketil (personal name)

kettlingr m kitten

keypti 3sg past of kaupa

kið <gen pl –a or -ja> kid, goat

kiðlingr <-s, -ar> m young kid


Kjallandi f Kjallandi, a giant killed by Thor

Kjartan <-s> m Kjartan (personal name)

Kjarvalr <-s> m Kjarval (personal name)

kjóllmship (poet)

kjósa <kýss, kaus~køri, kusu~kuru~køru, kørinn~kosinn> vb (VII) to choose

Kjǫtvi m Kjotvi (personal name); Kjǫtvi inn auðgi Kjotvi the wealthy

klaka <-að-> vb (1) to titter, chatter (as birds)

Klakk-Haraldr <-s> m Klakk-Harald (personal name)

klettr <-s, -ar> m rock, crag

KlifshagimKlifshagi (place name), Cliff Meadow

klífa <klífr, kleif, klifu, klifinn> vb (I)to climb

kljúfa <klýfr, klauf, klufu, klofinn> vb (II) to cleave, split

klyf <pl -jar> f pack (for a horse)

klæða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to clothe

klæðincloth; pl clothes

klǫkuðu 3pl past of klaka

knarrarbringaf Boat-breast (nickname)

kná <kná, 1pl pres knegum, knátti, past inf knáttu> defective pret-pres vb tobe able to, can; could

knáliga adv hardily, vigorously

knáligr adj hardy, vigorous

knerrir nom pl of knǫrr

kneyfa <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to drink in large gulps

kné <dat pl knjám, gen knjá> n knee

knútaf knuckle-bone

knútr <-s, -ar> m knot

Knútr <-s> m Knut (personal name); Knútr inn ríki, King Canute the Great

knýja <knýr, knýði~knúði, knúinn> vb (3) to knock (at the door); press, urge on, compel, force; knýjask mid struggle on

knǫrr <dat knerri, gen knarrar, pl knerrir, acc knǫrru> m ship; merchant vessel

Kolbeinn <-s> m Kolbein (personal name)

kollr <-s, -ar> m top, summit; head

kom 1/3sg past of koma

koma <kemr~kømr, kom, kómu~kvámu, kominn> vb (IV) to come; koma at come to, arrive; koma at [e-u] come across, arrive at [sth]; koma ásamt með þeim they agreed; koma endr at regain; komask mid make one’s way

kominn ppart of koma

komnir m nom pl of kominn

kona <gen pl kvenna> f woman, wife

konu acc/dat/gen of kona

konungastefna f meeting of kings

konungdómr m kingdom

konungr <-s, -ar> m king

konungsson m prince

korn n grain, seed

kostnaðr <-ar> m cost, expense

kostr <gen kostar, pl kostir, acc kosti~kostu> m choice; opportunity; match; state, condition; cost, expense; at ǫðrum kosti else, otherwise

kómu 3pl past of koma

kraki m pole ladder; stake

kraptr m strength

kráka fcrow

krás <pl -ir> f delicacy, dainty (of food)

krefja <krafði, krafðr~krefinn> vb (3) to crave, claim, demand; krefja [e-t] [e-s] demand [sth] of [sb]

kringla f circle, disk, orb

kristinn adj Christian

kristni f Christianity; Christendom

Kristr <-s> m Christ

krjúpa <krýpr, kraup, krupu, kropinn> vb (II) to creep; crouch

kroppa <-að-> vb (1) to pluck, pick

Krossavík f Krossavik, Cross Bay or Inlet, presumably an inlet where a cross was erected, a farmstead

kumbl <pl kumbl> n burial monument, mound or cairn (frequently used on Danish and Swedish rune stones in the plural)

kunna <kann, kunni, kunnat> pret-pres vb to know, understand; to be able orcan do sth, know how to; feel (an emotion)

kunnigr adj known; wise; versed in magic

kunningi <pl -jar> m acquaintance

kurteiss adj courteous, well-bred

kuru 3pl past of kjósa

kussari m corsair (corsairs were pirates who operated along the Barbary Coast of North Africa)

kúla f hump, hunchback

kvað 1/3sg past of kveða

kváðu 3pl past of kveða

kván (also kvæn) <pl -ir> f wife

kvánga <-að-> vb cause (a man) to marry; kvángask mid marry (of a man), take a wife

kvángaðr ppart of kvánga(m nom sg), married (of a man)

kveða <kveðr, kvað, kváðu, kveðinn> vb (V) to speak, say; recite verse; kveða á fix, determine; kveða við reply; kveðask mid say of oneself; declare

kveld n evening; at kveldi at nightfall

kvelda <-að-> vb (1) [impers] to become evening

Kveld-Úlfr <-s> m Kveld-Ulf, Night Wolf (personal name); Kveld-Úlfsson Son of Kveld-Ulf

kvenna see kona

kvennváðir f pl women’s clothing

kverk <pl kverkr> f angle below the chin

kvikr adj alive

kvikvendi n living creature

kvæði <gen pl kvæða> n poem

kvæn var of kván

kyn <dat pl kynjum, gen kynja> n kin; kindred, family descent group

kyrr adj still, quiet

kyssa <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to kiss

kýr <acc/dat kú, gen kýr, pl kýr, dat kúm, gen kúa> f cow

kærleikr m affection, friendship

kœmi 3sg/pl pret subj of koma

kǫlluðu 3pl past of kalla call

kømr (var of kemr) 2/3sg pres of koma

kǫnnuðu 3pl past of kanna

kǫrtr <gen kǫrts~kartar> m short, stocky man (nickname)

kǫttr <dat ketti, gen kattar, pl kettir, acc kǫttu, gen katta> m cat

— L —

lag <pl lǫg> n thrust, stab

lagit ppart of leggja placed

lagt ppart of leggja placed

lamði 3sg past of lemja

land <pl lǫnd> n land; country; estate

landnám n settlement, lit land-taking

Landnámabók f Book of Settlements

landnámsmaðr m settler, lit land-take-man (the term refers to both women and men)

landráð n the government of the land

landskyld f land tax, property tax

landsmaðr m countryman, inhabitant or native of a country

landsréttr m the law of the land, customary rights

langeldar m pl long fires (down the middle of a hall)

langfeðgar m pl forefathers, ancestors (through the father’s line)

langháls m long-necked (nickname)

langlífi n long life

langr <f lǫng, n langt, comp lengri, superl lengstr> adj long (of distance and time)

langt adv for a long time

Laufey f goddess, known only as mother of Loki

laug <dat laugu, pl laugar> f bath; hot spring

lauk 1/3sg past of lúka

lausafénmovable property, chattels, possessions, as opposed to lands or even to land and cattle

lauss adj loose; free, unimpeded

laust 1/3sg past of ljósta

lausung <dat lausungu, pl lausungar> f lying, falsehood

laut 1/3sg past of lúta

lax <gen lax, pl laxar> m salmon

Laxárdalr m Laxardal, Salmon River Valley

1/3sg pret of liggja

lágu 3pl past of liggja

láta <lætr, lét, létu, látinn> vb (VII) to let, allow, permit; put, place, set; behave; láta fram let go, yield, hand over; láta sem pretend, make or behave as if, lit let on as if; [w infin] have something done; ppart dead, deceased

látinn ppart of láta dead, deceased

leggja <lagði, lagiðr~lagðr~laginn> vb (3) to lay, place, put; appoint, fix; stab, thrust; leggja á impose; leggja frá withdraw; leggja í spánu smash into pieces; leggja til attack (by stabbing); leggja til barðaga attack; leggja til [e-s] með [e-u] attack [sb] with [sth]; leggja undir sik conquer; lífit á leggja lay down one’s life; leggjask mid lay, set oneself; leggjask á [e-t] prey upon (of robbers, beasts of prey, etc), fall upon, attack [sth]; leggjask niðr lay oneself down; leggjask út set out (into the wilderness to live as an outlaw)

leggr <-jar, -ir> m leg; leggr ok liðr every limb

leið <pl -ir> f road, path; way

leið 1/3sg past of líða

leiða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to lead

Leiði m Leid, a giant killed by Thor

leifa <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to leave, leave as heritage; to leave behind, abandon, relinquish

Leifr <-s> m Leif (personal name)

leika <leikr, lék, léku, leikit> vb (VII) to play; leika sér play

leikr <-s, -ar> m game, play, sport

leita <-að-> vb (1) [w gen] to seek, search for; proceed on a journey

leka <lekr, lak, lákum, lekit> vb (IV) to drip, dribble, leak

lemja <lamði, lamiðr~lamdr~laminn> vb (3) to maim

lendr adj describes one who has received a grant of land from a king, landed; lendr maðr landholder

lengi <comp lengr (time), lengra (distance), superl lengst> adv long, for a long time

lengr comp adv of lengilonger (time), for a longer time

lengra comp adv of lengi longer (distance), farther

lengst superl adv longest, for the longest time

lesa <less, las, lásu, lesinn> vb (V) to gather; read

leyfa <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) [w dat] to permit, allow

leyfi n permission, leave

leyna <-di, -dr> vb (2) to hide, conceal; leynask mid hide oneself, be concealed; leynask í burt steal away, leave

lék 1/3sg past of leika

lét 1/3sg past of láta

Léttfeti m Light-Foot (mythological name) horse of the Æsir and jǫtunn name

létu 3pl past of láta

lézt 2sg past of láta

lið n band of men, following, troops

liðr <gen liðar, pl liðir, acc liðu> m joint

lifa <-ði, lifat> vb (4) to live; to be left; to burn, to be lively (of fire); to kindle; lifa við [e-t] to live on [sth], feed on [sth]

liggja <liggr, lá, lágu, leginn> vb (V) to lie; be situated

limarfpl limbs, branches

litlaf acc sg of lítill

litlu n dat sg of lítill

litr <-ar, -ir> m color

Livsteinn <-s> m Livstein (personal name)

líða <líðr, leið, liðu, liðinn> vb (I) to pass (usu of time); líða at draw toward (of time); sem leið at jólum as time passed toward Yule

líf (also lífi) n life; lífit á leggja lay down one’s life

lífi var of líf

líflát n loss of life, death

líknbody; corpse

líka <-að-> vb (1) impers [w dat subj] to like, be pleasing (to one)

líkami m body

líki n body; form, shape

líkligr adj likely, probable

líknsamastr superl adj of líknsamr most merciful

líknsamr adj merciful

líkr adj like, resembling; probable; promising

lín n flax; linen, linen garment

lína f bowline, rope; line; bridal veil, (see also lín)

Línakradalr <-s> m Linakradale (place name), Valley of Linen Fields

líta <lítr, leit, litu, litinn> vb (I) to look; líta á [e-t] look at [sth]; mid lítask [e-m] appear (seem) to [sb]

lítill <f lítil, n lítit> adj little; litla hríð for a little while; litlu síðar(r) a little later

lítt adv little

lízk 2/3sg pres mid of líta

ljá <lér, léði, léðr> vb (3) [w gen] to lend; ljá [e-m] [e-s] lend [sb] [sth]

ljóðaháttr <dat -hætti, gen -hattar> m ‘Chant-meter’, type of verse

Ljósálfar m pl the Light Elves

ljóss adj light, bright

ljósta <lýstr, laust, lustu, lostinn> vb (II) to strike; ljósta í hel to strike into hel [the realm of the dead]

ljúga <lýgr, laug~ló, lugu, loginn> vb (II) to lie, tell a lie; fail

loðbrók also loðbrókkr f shaggy/hairy-breech(es) (nickname); Ragnar Loðbrókkr/Loðbrók Ragnar Hairy Breeches [nickname from wearing pants made of hide] legendary hero of Ragnars saga loðbrókkar/loðbrókar

lofa <-að-> vb (1) to praise

logi m flame, fire

lok n lock, bolt; pl end; liða und(ir) lok die; til loks completely

lokhvíla f locking bed-closet

Loki m Loki, the trickster god

lokrekkja f locking bed-closet

lokrekkjugólf n locking bed-closet

lopt n sky, heavens, air

lostinn ppart of ljósta

lófi m palm of the hand; holr lófi open palm

lund <pl -ir> f manner; mind, temper; á þessa lund in this manner

lundr <-ar, -ir> m grove

lunga n lung

lúfafrough, thick, matted hair; original nickname for Haraldr hárfagri [Fairhair]; see Haraldr

lúka <lýkr, lauk, luku, lokinn> vb (II) [w dat] to close; end, conclude; shut

lúta <lýtr, laut, lutu, lotinn> vb (II) to bend down, bow; lean

Lútr m Lut, a giant killed by Thor

lygi f lie, falsehood

lykill <dat lykli, pl luklar, acc lukla> m key

lysta <-ti, -tr> vb impers (2) [w acc subj] to desire, intend, wish to

lýsa <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to light up, illuminate; proclaim, announce; impers shine, beam; lýsa [e-u] proclaim [sth]; lýsir af honum light shines from him

Lýtingr <-s> m Lyting (personal name)

læknir <-is, -ar> m physician

lætr 2/3sg pres of láta

lǫg n pl law, laws

lǫgbergnlaw-rock (where the law was recited)

lǫgðu 3pl past of leggja

lǫgligr adj legal, lawful

lǫgmaðr (pl lǫgmenn) m lawman

lǫgrétta f legislature at the Althing


lǫngu adv long, far off; long since

lǫngum adv long time, constantly

— M —

maðr <acc mann, dat manni, gen manns, nom/acc pl menn, dat mǫnnum, gen manna> m man; person, human being

Magnús m Magnus (personal name)

makligr adj fitting, proper, becoming; deserving

mala <melr, mól, mólu, malinn> vb (VI)to  grind

mangi var of manngi

manna gen pl of maðr

mannblót n human sacrifice

mannbroddr m a crampon with iron attached to shoe for traction on ice; spike

manndráp n murder

mannfólk n mankind

manngi (also mangi) <gen mannskis> pron no man, nobody

mannshǫnd f man’s hand


mannvænn adj promising

margbreytinn adj fickle, capricious, unpredictable

margkunnigr adj learned (in magic)

margmenninmultitude, many

margr <f mǫrg, n margt~mart, comp fleiri, superl flestr> adj [w sg] many a; [w pl] many

marka <-að-> vb (1) to mark, draw; fix; mark as one’s property; mark with an emblem; heed, mind; signify, mean; infer, observe; þar eptir mátt þú marka fegrð hans accordingly, you can judge his beauty

marr <-s, -ar> m horse, steed

mart var of margt, n nom/acc sg of margr

matr <-ar, -ir> m food

1/3sg pres of mega

mágr <-s, -ar> m brother-, father-, or son-in-law; kinsman

mál n speech, narrative, talk; language; saying; deliberation, discussion; case, matter, affair; [leg] suit, action, case

málafylgjumaðr m lawyer

máli m contract, terms, agreement; ganga á mála to take service as a soldier with a leader

málfeti var of málmfeti

máligr var of málugr

málmfeti (also málfeti) m name for a horse; málmfeti varrar horse pulled by an oar (kenning for ‘ship’)

málmr m metal, ore

málstefna f meeting, conference

málugr (also máligr) <m pl málgir> adj talkative

mánaðr var of mánuðr


mánuðr (also mánaðr) <gen mánuðar, pl mánuðr> m month

már <dat mávi~máfi, gen más, pl mávar> m gull, sea-gull

mástallrmstall of the sea-gull (kenning for ‘sea’)

mátt 2sg past of mega

mátti 3sg past of mega

máttigr (also máttugr) <acc máttkan> adj powerful, mighty

máttu 3pl past of mega

máttugr var of máttigr

með prep [w acc] with (in the sense of bringing, carrying, or forcing); [w dat] with (in the sense of accompanying or togetherness); sigla með landi sail along the coast; adv as well, with it

meðal (alsoá meðal, í meðal)prep [w gen] among, between

meðan conj while, meanwhile, as long

mega <má, mátti, mátt> pret-pres vb can, may; be able

megin n strength

meiða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to injure, hurt, damage; meiðask mid become injured, hurt, damaged

meiðmar f pl treasures

mein n injury, harm; disease; impediment

meiri comp adj of mikill bigger, greater, more

meir(r) comp adv of mikit; more greatly

mella f noose; poet giantess

men <dat pl menjum, gen menja> n necklace; pl treasures

menn nom/acc pl of maðr

merki <dat pl merkjum, gen merkja> n boundary; banner, standard; token, mark, sign

mest superl adv of mikit most

mestr superl adj of mikill biggest, tallest, greatest

meta <metr, mat, mátu, metinn> vb (V) to evaluate, value; set a price

mey acc sg of mær

meydómr m maidenhood, virginity

meyjar gen sg & nom/acc pl of mær

meyju dat sg of mær

mér dat sg of ek

Michael kátalaktús m Michael katalaktus (personal name)

miðdegi see hádegi

Miðfjarðar-Skeggi m Skeggi of Midfjord (personal name)

Miðfjǫrðr m Midfjord (place name)

MiðgarðrmMidgard, the Middle Enclosure, Middle Earth

MiðgarðsormrmMidgard Serpent, the serpent Jǫrmungandr that encircles the earth

miðla <-að-> vb (1) to share, hand out; miðla [e-t] við [e-n] share [sth] with [sb]

miðnótt f midnight

miðr <m acc miðjan, n nom mitt> adj middle

miðr var of minnr (comp adv)

miðr-aptan m middle evening, six in the evening

miðrdegi see hádegi

mik acc of ek

mikill <f mikil, n mikit, comp meiri, superl mestr> adj big, tall, great; much, very; mikill fyrir sér powerful, strong

mikillátr adj proud

mikinn adv hard, fast (m acc sg of adj mikill)

mikit adv greatly

Miklagarðr m Miklagard (place name) ‘the Great City,’ Constantinople, capital of the Greek Byzantine Empire; spelled in some editions Mikligarðr

miklu adv much [w comp]

milli(also millum, á milli and í milli) prep [w gen] between

minn <mín, mitt> poss pron my

minna <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to remind; minna [e-n] [e-s] remind [sb] of [sth]; impers minnir mik I remember; mid [w gen] minnask remember, call to mind

minni comp adj of lítill littler, less, smaller

minnr (also miðr) comp adv of lítit less

minnst superl adv of lítit least

minnstr superl adj of lítill least, smallest

mín gen of ek

mín f nom sg & n nom/acc pl of minn

Mímir m Mimir, one of the Æsir

Mímisbrunnr m Mimisbrunn, the Well of Mimir

mjólk <gen mjólkr> f milk

mjólká f river or stream of milk

mjólkár f nom, acc pl of mjólká

mjǫðr <dat miði, gen mjaðar> m mead

mjǫk adv much, very

mjǫl <gen pl mjǫlva> n meal, flour

mjǫlleyfi n license to export meal

Mjǫllnirmhammer of Thor

mold (dat moldu) f mold, earth, dirt

morginn (also morgunn) <gen morgins, pl mornar~morgnar> m morning; á morginn tomorrow

mosimmoss; moorland

móðir <acc/dat/gen móður, pl mœðr, dat mœðrum, gen mœðra> f mother

móður acc/dat/gen sg of móðir

móðurbróðir m mother’s brother, uncle

móðurætt fkinsfolk on the mother’s side of the family

mór <dat mó, gen mós, pl móar> m moor, heath

móti (also á móti and í móti) prep [w dat] towards; against; contrary to; in return

móttaka <pl móttǫkur> f resistance, defense, counter-attack; til móttǫku to a defense, to counter-attack

muna <man, mundi, munaðr> pret-pres vb toremember, call to mind

munat = muna + t (negative suffix)

mundi 3sg past of munu

mundr <-ar> m bride price


munr <-ar, -ir> m difference

munu <mun~man, mundi, past inf mundu> pret-pres vb will, shall; to be sure to, must (probability); would, must (in past tense)

múgr <-s, -ar> m crowd

mús <pl mýss> f mouse

Múspellsheimr m Muspellsheim, the Land of Fire

mylla <pl -ur> f mill

mynda 1sg past subjunct of munu or muna

myrkr adj dark

Mýrkjartan <-s> m Myrkjartan (personal name)

mýrr <acc/dat mýri, gen mýrar, pl mýrar> f moor, bog, swamp

mæla <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to say, speak; leg mæla eptir [e-t]/[e-n] take up the prosecution for [sth]/[sb] (who was murdered or wronged); mæla við [e-n] speak to or with [sb], say to [sb]; mæla með [e-m/e-u] recommend [sb/sth]

mælti 1/3sg past of mæla

mær <acc mey, dat meyju, gen meyjar, pl meyjar, dat meyjum, gen meyja> f maid, girl, virgin

mætta 1sg past subjunct of mega

Mœrr <acc Mœri, dat Mœri, gen Mœrar > f region in West Norway

mœta <-tti, -ttr> vb (2) to meet

mǫgfellandi m kin-slaying (one)

mǫgr <dat megi, gen magar, pl magir, acc mǫgu> m son, boy

mǫl <gen malar> f pebbles, gravel

mǫn <gen manar, pl manar> f mane

mǫnnum dat pl of maðr

Mǫrðr <gen Marðar> m Mord (personal name)

mǫrg f nom sg & n nom/acc pl of margr

— N —

nafn <pl nǫfn> n name

nafnfrægr adj famous

nagl <pl negl> m nail

nam 1/3sg past of nema

nauðgjald nforced payment

nauð(r) f need, difficulty, distress; ætla [e-t] til nauða [e-m] intend [sth] as harm to [sb]

nauðsyn <pl nauðsynjar> f necessity

nauðugr adj unwilling, reluctant

naut n cattle, oxen

<náir, -ði, nát> vb (2) [w dat] to reach, catch, overtake; get, obtain; [w inf] be able to

nágrindr f pl gates of the dead

nál <pl -ar> f needle

náliga adv nearby; nearly, almost

nánd <-ar, -ir> f proximity

nár <nás, náir> m corpse, dead man

nátta <-að> vb (1) to become night, grow dark

náttmál nnine in the evening

náttstaðr m night-quarters

náttúra f natural ability

neðan adv from below, from beneath; without motion beneath, underneath

nef <gen pl nefja> n nose

nefna <-di, -dr> vb (2) to name, call; mention [e-r nom] er nefndr [sb] is mentioned

nefndr ppart of nefna

nei adv no

nema <nemr, nam, námu, numinn> vb (IV) to take; claim land; hear; learn

nema conj except, save, but; [w subjunct] unless

nes n headland, promontory, peninsula

nest n traveling provisions

conj nor; hvárki…né neither…nor; né…né not…nor

niðr <dat nið, gen niðjar~niðs, pl niðjar> m son, kinsman, relative through marriage

niðr adv down

Niflheimr m Niflheim, the Underworld

Niflhel f Niflhel, Dark Hel, place for some dead


Níðhǫggr m Nidhogg, the serpent which dwells in the spring Hvergelmir

nítján <ord nítjándi nineteenth> num nineteen

nítugandi ord num ninetieth

níu <ord níundi, ninth > num nine

níundi ord ninth

Njáll m Njal (personal name)

njósn <pl -ir> f news; spying, scouting, looking out

njóta <nýtr, naut, nutu, notinn> vb (II) to enjoy

Njǫrðr m Njord, god of the sea, one of the Vanir

norðan adv from the north

Norðmaðr <pl Norðmenn> m Northman, Norseman, Norwegian

Norðmannaliðnband of Norsemen


Norðri m Nordri (mythological name) North, dwarf who supports the heavens

norðr <-rs> n the north

norðr <comp norðar>adv north, northwards

Norðrlǫnd <dat Norðrlǫndum> n pl the Northern countries or region, Scandinavia

Nóregr (also Norvegr or Noregr) <-s> m Norway, lit northern way or norðvegr

norn <pl -ir> f norn, one of the three fates; one of various supernatural females who shape people’s fates

norrœna f Norse, lit northern

norrœnn adj Norwegian, lit northern

Nóatún n Njord’s home, lit precinct of ships (nóa), i.e., sea, see Njǫrðr

Nóregr (also Noregr or Norvegr) <-s> m Norway

nótt (also nátt) <gen nætr, pl nætr> f night; of nóttina during the night

numinn ppart of nema

adv now

nýr <acc nýjan, f ný, n nýtt> adj new

nýra n kidney

næði 3sg/pl past subjunct of

nær prep [w dat] near; adv almost, nearly; hvé nær conj when; comp adv nearer

nærricomp adv nearer, very near

næst superl adv nearest, next; því næst thereupon

næstr superl adj next; nearest

nǫfn nom/acc pl of nafn

nǫkkurr <f nǫkkur, n nǫkkut> adj pron any, anybody; some, a certain

nǫkkut adv somewhat

nǫkkvi <-a, -ar> m boat, ship

Nǫrðrlǫnd var of Norðrlǫnd

Nǫrr m Norr, (personal name)

— O —

of prep [w acc/dat] over, [of time] in, during; [w acc] of, about; adv too

ofan adv from above, down; downwards; on the uppermost part, at the top of; [w gen] above the surface of

ofan á prep [w acc] down (from above) to

ofan til prep [w gen] down (from above) to

ofn <-s, -ar> m oven

ok conj and; adv also

okkar gen of vit

okkr acc/dat of vit

okkarr poss dual pron our

opt <comp optar, superl optast> adv often

orð n word; repute, fame, report; í ǫðru orði at the same time, likewise, lit in a second word

orðit ppart of verða

orðstírr m fame, renown

Orkneyjar f pl the Orkney Islands (place name)

ormr <-s, -ar> m snake, serpent, worm

Ormr <-s> m Orm (personal name); Ormr inn auðgi Orm the Wealthy

ormr-í-auga n Snake-in-the-Eye (nickname)

ormslíki n shape, form of a dragon

ormstunga f Worm-Tongue (nickname)

orrosta f battle; til orrostu to or for battle

orrostumaðr(pl orrostumenn) mwarrior, man of battle

orti see yrkja

oss acc/dat of vér

otr <gen otrs, pl otrar> m otter

otrbelgr m otter pelt or skin

otrgjǫldnpl wergeld, ransom, or compensation for a dead otter, Otter’s ransom

oxi var of uxi

— Ó —

ó- neg pref un-

ódæll adj difficult, quarrelsome, stubborn

óðal <pl óðǫl> n ancestral property, patrimony, allodium, property held in allodial tenure

óðfúss adj madly keen, eager

Óðindísa f Odindisa (personal name)

Óðinn m Odin, chief god of the Æsir

óðr <f óð, n ótt> adj frantic; furious, vehement

óeirðarmaðr m unruly man

óf 1/3sg past of vefa

Ófeigr <-s> m Ofeig (personal name)

óframliga adv timidly

ófriðr <-ar> m war, strife

ógurligr adj awful, terrible

óhræddr adj unafraid

ójafn adj uneven, unequal

ójafnaðarmaðr m an overbearing, unjust individual

ók 1/3sg past of aka

ókátr adj gloomy

ókembdr <n ókembt> ppart unkempt

Óláfr <-s> m Olaf (personal name); Óláfr pái Olaf the Peacock

Ólǫf <gen Ólafar> f Olof (personal name)

ólǫg n lawlesness

ór (also úr) prep [w dat] out of, from, from inside of; made of

óráð n evil plan

óríkr adj weak

órlausn f solution

óskǫp n pl ill fate

óskorinn <n óskorit> ppart uncut, unshorn

ósætt f disagreement

ótrúligr adj unbelievable; unpredictable;suspicious

ótta f last part of the night before dawn

óttask <-að-> vb (2) to be afraid

ótti m fear

óvandr adj unwary

óvinr m enemy

óvitrliga adv foolishly

óvægr adj harsh, unmerciful

óx 1/3sg past of vaxa

óþýðr adj unfriendly; intimidating

— P —

pallr mstep; raised platform along the side(s) of a hall

papi m pope; priest; name for the Irish anchorites said to be in Iceland when the first Norse settlers arrived.

pái (also ) m peacock (nickname)

penningr m coin, penny; piece of property, article

prestr m priest; prestrinn the priest

— R —

Ragnarr <-s> m Ragnarr/Ragnar (personal name); Ragnarr loðbrókkr (also Loðbrók) Ragnar Shaggy/hairy -breeches, a legendary Viking chieftain of the 9th century; see loðbrókkr

ragnarøk(k)r <-rs> n Ragnarok, the twilight of the gods, the world’s end (also ragna rǫk n pl doom of the gods; see rǫk)

Ragnfrøðr <-s> m Ragnfrod (personal name)

Ragnhildr <acc/dat Ragnhildi, gen Ragnhildar> f Ragnhild (personal name)

Ragnvaldr <-s> m Ragnvald (personal name)

ragr <f rǫg, n ragt> adj effeminate, cowardly, (passively) homosexual

rammr <f rǫmm, n rammt> adj strong; mighty, powerful; rammr at afli extremely strong

Rangárvellir m pl Rangarvellir (place name) Rang River Plains

rangr <f rǫng, n rangt> adj crooked, unjust; wrong, false

Rannveig <-ar> f Rannveig (personal name)

Ratatoskr (also Ratatǫskr) <-s> m Ratatosk, squirrel that carries insults between Níðhǫggr and the eagle

Rauð-Balli m Red-Balli (personal name)

rauðr <f rauð, n rautt> adj red (frequently as a descriptor for gold)

Raumaríki n Raumariki (place name) Romerike

ráðnadvice, counsel; plan

ráða <ræðr, réð, réðu, ráðinn> vb (VII) [w dat] to advise, counsel; rule, govern, manage; réð lǫndum ruled over (his) lands; þat var ráðit it was decided; ráða at + dat attack réð at húskǫrlum Flosa attacked Flosi’s men; ráða fyrir [e-u] rule over [sth]; ráða um við [e-t] deliberate or think about [sth];

ráðagørð <pl -ir> f council; eiga ráðagørð take council

ráðsnjallr adj wise in counsel

ráku 3pl past of reka

Refill m name of a sword

Refr <-s> m Ref (personal name) Fox; Refr inn rauði Ref the Red

Refsstaðir m pl Refsstadir (place name) Ref’s Farmstead

regin <dat pl rǫgnum, gen ragna> n pl (divine) powers, gods

Reginn <-s> m Regin; son of Hreidmar, brother of Fáfnir the dragon

regna <-di, -t> vb (2) to rain

reiddisk 2/3sg past of reiðask

reið <dat -u, -ar, -ar> f vehicle, wagon, carriage, cart, or chariot; ride, the act of riding

reið 1/3sg past of ríða

reiðask <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to become angry

reiðfara adj indecl have a good passage

reiðifanger, wrath; af reiði in anger, out of anger

reiðimship’s equipment, rigging

reiðr adj angry, wrathful, offended

reis 1/3sg past of rísa

reisa <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to raise; láta reisa stein have a stone raised

reist 1/3sg past of rísta

reka <rekr, rak, ráku, rekinn> vb (V) to drive, herd; drive onto shore, wreck; [w gen] take vengeance for; reka spor follow tracks or footprints

rekaviðr m driftwood

reki m driftage, a thing drifted ashore, wreck

rekja <rakði~rakti, rakiðr~rakðr~raktr> vb (3) to track, trace

rekkja f bed; fara í rekkju go to bed

reknir ppart of reka

renna <rennr, rann, runnu, runninn> vb (III) intrans to run, flee; put to flight; melt

renna <-di, -dr> vb (2) trans to make/let run; twart

reri 3sg past of róa

Rerir <-s> m Reri (personal name)

reru 3pl past of róa

reyðr <acc/dat reyði, gen reyðar, pl reyðar> f rorqual, large baleen whale

Reykjanes n Reykjanes (place name), ‘Smokey Peninsula’

Reykjarvík f Reykjavik, ’Smokey Bay’ (modern Reykjavík)

reyna <-di, -dr> vb (2) to try, prove; experience

réð 1/3sg past of ráða

réði 3sg/pl past subjunct of ráða

rétt adv directly, straight; exactly, precisely; rightly, correctly; from adj réttr

réttr <f rétt, n rétt> adj straight; correct, right, just

réttr <-ar> m law

rif <dat pl rifjum> n rib; reef (in the sea)

Rifsker <dat pl Rifskerjum> n Rifsker (place name), Rocky or Rib Reef

rista (also rísta) <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to cut, carve, engrave

ristnar ppart of rísta (f nom/acc pl)

rita <-að-> vb (1) to write, var of ríta

ríða <ríðr, reið, riðu, riðinn> vb (I) to ride

riði 3sg/pl past subjunct of ríða

Ríkarðr <-ar> m Richard

ríkastr superl adj of ríkr richest

ríki <dat pl ríkjum, gen pl ríkja> n power; realm; kingdom

ríkismaðr (pl ríkismenn) m great man, prominent man, wealthy man, man of power

ríkr <acc ríkjan> adj powerful, mighty

rísa <ríss, reis, risu, risinn> vb (I) to arise, rise, stand up; rísa upp rise up, get up

rísmál n six in the morning

rísta <rístr, reist, ristu, ristinn> vb (I) to cut; carve, engrave; carve, form by carving; láta rísta rúnar have runes carved

ríta <rítr, reit, ritu, ritinn> vb (I) to write; scratch, cut

rjóða <rýðr, rauð, ruðu, roðinn> vb (II) to redden

rjúf imperative of rjúfa; break

rjúfa <rýfr, rauf, rufu, rofinn> vb (II) to break, rip; break a hole in; rjúfa sáttmál break an agreement or truce; (impers) rýfr veðrit the weather clears

Roðbertr lǫngumspaði <-s> m Robert Longsword

Rogaland nRogaland (place name)

róa <rœr, røri~reri, røru~reru, róinn> vb (VII) to row

róðr <gen róðrar, pl róðrar> m rowing, pulling

rógmálmr m gold, metal of strife

rót <gen rótar, pl rœtr> f root

róta <-að-> vb (1) [w dat] to throw into disorder; róta [e-u] í sundr knock [sth] apart

runnu 3pl past of renna

rúm n bed; space, seat

rún <pl -ar> f secret, mystery; rune, a letter in the runic futhark

rygr <-jar> f housewife

ræðr 2/3sg of ráða

ræna <-di, -dr ~ -ti, -tr> vb (2) to rob, steal, plunder; ræna [e-n] [e-t] rob [sb] of [sth]

rœða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to speak; converse, discuss

rœtr nom/acc pl of rót

rǫg f nom sg & n nom/acc pl of ragr

Rǫgnvaldr <-s~ar> m Rognvald (personal name)

rǫk n pl judgment, doom

rǫkðu 3pl past of rekja

røk(k)r <-rs> n twilight

røru 3pl past of róa

rǫskr <acc rǫskvan> adj sturdy, vigorous, brave

rǫst <gen rastar, pl rastir> f unit of distance between two resting places (perhaps equivalent to the Old Scandinavian mile)

— S —

saga <pl sǫgur> f what is said, story, saga, tale, legend, history; saga til [e-s] a story about [sth]; nú víkr sǫgunni now it [the subject] in the saga moves

sagði 3sg past of segja

sagt ppart of segja

sakar gen of sǫk


sakna <-að> vb (1) [w gen] to miss, feel the loss of

sal acc/dat sg of salr

salr <dat sal, gen salar, pl salir> m hall

saltir str m nom pl of saltr

saltr <sǫlt, salt> adj salty

saman adv together

samfǫr <pl samfarar> f (usu in pl) relationship, marriage

sammœðr adj of the same mother

samr <f sǫm, n samt> adj pron same; ina sǫmu nótt on the same night; it sama the same, likewise

sannnefni n appropriate, truthful name

sannr <f sǫnn, n satt> adj true

sat see sitja

sauðahús n sheep pen, sheep-fold

sauðamaðr (pl sauðamenn) m shepherd

sauðr <-ar, -ir> m sheep

sautján (also sjautján) <ord s(j)autjándi, seventeenth> num seventeen

<f sú, n þat> dem pron that (one)

<sær, søri~seri, søru~seru, sáinn> vb (VII) to sow

1/3sg past of sjá

sál <gen sálar, pl sálir> f var of sála

sála <pl sálur> f soul

sáldncask, vat

sámr adj swarthy, blackish

sár n wound

sárr adj wounded; painful, sore

sáttr adj reconciled, at peace

sátu 3pl past of sitja

sáu 3pl past of sjá

sefr 2/3sg pres of sofa

seggr <pl seggir, gen seggja> m man

segir 2/3 sg pres of segja

segja <sagði, sagt> vb (3) to say; segja frá [e-u] reveal, tell about [sth]; segja [e-m] til [e-s] tell, inform [sb] of [sth]; segja til sín give one’s name

sekr <acc sekan~sekjan> adj guilty; convicted, condemned to outlawry; gera [e-n] sekan condemn [sb] to outlawry

selja <-di, -dr> vb (2) to hand over to another; sell; seljast mid give oneself up

sem rel particle who, which, that; conj as; [w superl] as … as possible; where

senda <-di, -dr> vb (2) to send

sendi 1/3sg past & 1sg pres of senda

sendimaðr m messenger

senn adv at once, straight away

setja <-tti, -ttr> vb (2) to set, seat, place; setja til ríkis put in power; setja at [e-m] attack [sb];setja á push; setja saman set up, put together; setja upp set, stand up; setja við prepare; setjask mid seat oneself, sit

sex <ord sétti, sixth > num six

sex tigir num sixty

sextán <ord sextándi, sixteenth> num sixteen

sextugandi ord num sixtieth

seyra f starvation, famine

sezk 2/3sg pres of setjask (setr + sk)

1/3sg & 3pl pres subjunct of vera (see also sjá, síga)

sém 1pl pres subjunct of vera

sér dat of sik

sér 2/3sg of sjá

sétti ord sixth

siða <-að-> vb (2) to get people to conduct themselves properly; to introduce order; to convert (to Christianity)

siðaðr ppart of siða (m nom sg), behaved, mannered

Sif f Sif, a goddess, the wife of Thor

SigfaðirmVictory-father, a name for Óðinn

Sighvatr <-s> m Sighvat (personal name)

sigla <-di, -dr> vb (2) to sail

sigla f mast

Sighvatr <-s> m Sighvat (personal name); Sighvatr inn rauði Sighvat the Red

SigimSigi (personal name)

Sigmundr <-ar> m Sigmund (personal name)

Signý <-jar> f Signy (personal name)

sigr <-rs> m victory

sigra <-að-> vb (1)todefeat

Sigríðr <acc/dat Sigríði, gen Sigríðar> f Sigrid (personal name)

sigrsæll adj victorious

Sigrøðr <-ar> m Sigrod (personal name)

Sigtryggr <-s> m Sigtrygg (personal name)

Sigurðr <-ar> m Sigurd (personal name); Sigurðr slefa Sigurd the Slobberer

sik <dat sér, gen sín> refl acc pron him-/her-/it-/oneself, themselves; undir sik under himself

silfr n silver

Silfrintoppr m Silfrintopp (mythological name) ‘Silver-Tuft’ or ‘Silver-Mane’, horse of the Æsir

silki n silk

silkitreyja f silken jacket

sinn n time (of repetition); eitt sinn one time; einu sinni once; hvert sinn every

sinn <f sín, n sitt> refl poss pron his, her, its, their own

sitja <sitr, sat, sátu, setinn> vb (V) to sit; reside

sitt n nom/acc sg of sinn

síð <comp síðr, superl sízt> adv late

síðan adv then, later, afterwards

síðar(r) comp adv of síð later

síðast superl adv of síð later

síðr superl adv of síð less

síðr <f sið n sítt> adj long, low-hanging

síga <sígr, sé~seig, sigu, siginn> vb (I) to sink gently down; glide, move slowly

Símon knútr m Simon Knot (personal name)

sín gen of sik

sína f acc sg of sinn

sínu n dat sg of poss pron sinn

Síreksstaðir m pl Sireksstadir (place name) Sirek’s Farmstead

síztconj since, for

sízt superl adv of síð least

sjaldan adv seldom

sjautján var of sautján

sjau <ord sjaundi, seventh > num seven

sjautugandi ord num seventieth

sjá var of þessi

sjá <sér, sá, sá(u), sénn> vb (V) to see, look; understand; sjá á [e-m] look upon [sb]

sjái 3sg & pl pres subjunct of sjá

Sjáland n Zealand, Sjælland in modern Danish (place name)

sjálfbjargi adj indecl self-sufficient

sjálfr adj pron self, oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves

sjálfum m dat sg/all dat pl of sjálfr

sjávarafli m catch of fish, bounty of the sea

sjónhverfing f optical illusion (caused by a spell)

sjónlauss adj blind, sightless

sjór <gen sjóvar~sjófar> m sea; fyrir ofan sjó above the waterline

skaði m harm, damage; death

skafa <skefr, skóf, skófu, skafinn> vb (VI) toscrape, shave

skaka <skekr, skók, skóku, skekinn> vb (VI) to shake

skal 1/3sg pres of skulu

skalat = skal + -(a)t; ‘shall not’, -(a)t is a negative suffix

Skalla-Grímr <-s> m Skalla-Grim, Bald-Grim (personal name)

skalt 2sg pres of skulu

skaltu = skalt + þú

skammr adj short; brief

skammt adv short distance, not far (place)

skap n state, condition; temper, mood

skapa <-að-; skepr, skóp, skópu, skapinn> vb (wk/str 1/VI)to shape, form, make, create

skapt <pl skǫpt> n handle, shaft; á hávu skapti on a long shaft

skar 1/3sg past of skera

skarpr <f skǫrp, n skarpt> adj scorched, pinched, chafing

skattr <-s, -ar> m tribute, tax

skáld n poet, skald

skáldskaparmáln pl poetic diction

skálimmain hall, sleeping hall

skálm <pl -ir> f short sword, cleaver

Skáney f Skåne, Denmark (place name), now part of Sweden

skáru 3pl past of skera

skegg n beard

skeinuhættr adj likely to wound

skel f shell

skelfr 2/3sg pres of skjálfa

skellr <pl -ir> m blow, stroke

sker <dat pl skerjum, gen pl skerja> n skerry, isolated rock sticking out of the sea

skemaðr (alsoskímaðr)<-manns, -menn>mimpostor; hypocrite

skera <skerr, skar, skáru, skorinn> vb (IV) to cut

skikkja f cloak

skilja <-di~ði, skiliðr~skildr~skilinn> vb (2) to part, separate, divide; understand; þá skilr á um [e-t] impers they fall out over, differ, disagree about [sth]; skiljask mid separate, part from each other

skillingr <-s, -ar> m shilling, i.e., piece of money; pl money

skilnaðr <-s> m parting

skinn n skin, hide, fur

Skinna-Bjǫrn m Bjorn Fur-Skins (personal name)

skinnimskinner (nickname)

skipn ship

skipa <-að-> vb (2) to arrange, array; man, occupy

skipfǫr <gen skipfarar, pl skipfarar> f voyage, sailing, passage of a ship

skipsflak (also skipflak) n shipwreck

skipsǫgn f ship’s crew

skipt n nom/acc ppart of skipta

skipta <-ti, -tr> vb (2) [w dat] to divide; share; change

skipti n division

skíð n ski, piece of wood; skíð Atals grundar ski of the land of Atal (kenning for ‘ship’)

skíðn stick

SkíðimSkidi (personal name)

skína <skínr, skein, skinu, skininn> vb (I)to shine

SkírnirmSkirnir (personal name)

skjaldborg f shield-wall, protection

skjall n white membrane of an egg

skjálfa <skelfr, skalf, skulfu, skolfinn> vb (III) to tremble, shake

skjóta <skýtr, skaut, skutu, skotinn> vb (II) to shoot

skjótari comp adj of skjótr quicker, swifter

skjótliga adv swiftly

skótligr adj swift, alert

skjótr adj quick, swift

skjótt adv suddenly

skjǫldr <dat skildi, gen skjaldar, pl skildir, acc skjǫldu> m shield

Skjǫldr <gen Skaldar> m Skjold (personal name)

SkollmSkoll, the wolf that pursues the sun

skorinn ppart of skera

skorta <-ti, -t> vb (2) to be lacking to one; [e-n] skortir [e-t] [sb] is short of [sth]

skotnshooting, shot, missiles

Skotland n Scotland

skógr <-ar, -ar> m wood, forest

skór <dat skó, gen skós, pl skúar, acc skúa, dat skóm, gen skúa> m shoe

skrifa <-að-> vb (1) to write; draw

skríða <skríðr, skreið, skriðu, skriðinn> vb (I) to crawl

Skrýmir <-s> m Skrymir, name of a giant

Skrælingr <-s, -ar~-jar> m term referring to natives of North America and Greenland (derogatory)

Skuld f Skuld (mythological name,) Debt, that which should become, one of the three Norns

skulu <skal, skyldi, past inf skyldu> pret-pres vb shall (obligation, purpose, necessity, fate); should

skurðr <-ar, -ir> m cutting, slice; a trench; the flensing of a whale

skúr f shower

Skútaðar-Skeggi m Skeggi of Skutad (personal name)

skyld <pl -ir> f tax, due; incumbrance (on an estate); reason, sake

skyldr adj bound, obliged; due; urgent; related by kinship

skyldi 3sg past & 3sg/pl past subjunct of skulu/skyldu

skyldu 3pl past & past infin of skulu

skyli 3sg & pl pres subjunct of skulu

skynda <-di, -dr> vb (2)[w dat] to hurry, hasten

skynja <-að-> vb (1) to perceive, make out, understand

skyr n curdled milk

ský <gen pl skýja> n cloud

Skǫfnungr (also Skǫflungr) m Skofnung, possibly Shin Bone, the name of King Hrolf’s sword

skǫkull <dat skǫkli, gen skǫkuls> m harness

skǫr <gen skarar> f locks, hair

skǫrungr <-s, -ar> m notable man or woman, leader

slá <slær, sló, slógu, sleginn> vb (VI) to strike; forge

slefafsaliva, slobber; slobberer (nickname)

sleikja <-ði- / -ti-, -ðr- / -tr-> vb (2) to lick

sleikti 3sg past of sleikja

Sleipnir m Sleipnir, Odin’s horse

sleppa <sleppr, slapp, sluppu, sloppinn> vb (III) to slip; escape, slip away; fail, slip up

slíðrar (also slíðrir) f pl sheath, scabbard

slíðrir var of slíðrar

slíkr adj such

slíkt adv in such a way

sló 1/3sg past of slá

slǫngva (also sløngva) <pl slǫngur> f sling

smalamaðr (pl smalamenn) m shepherd

smám m dat sg, all dat pl of smár

smár <f smá, n smátt> adj small

smiðja <-u, -ur> f smithy

smiðr m smith

smíða <-að-> vb to create, make, build, erect; forge; work in wood or metal

smíðaði 3sg past of smíða

smjúga <smýgr, smaug~smó, smugu, smoginn> vb (II) to creep through an opening; pierce

smjǫr <dat smjǫrvi> n butter

Smjǫrvatnsheiðr f Smjorvatnsheid (place name), Butter-Lake Heath

sneiða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to slice; glance off

snemma (also snimma) <comp snemr, superl snemst> adv early

snemr comp adv of snemma earlier

snerta <snertr, snart, snurtu, snortinn> vb (III) to touch; concern

snimma var of snemma

snjallræði n wise counsel

snjófa / snjáfa <-að> vb (1) to snow

snjór <gen snjóvar~snjófar> m snow

Snorri <-a> m Snorri (personal name)

snúa <snýr, sneri~snøri, sneru~snøru, snúinn> vb (VII) to turn; twist, plait, braid; snúask til turn oneself to

Snækólfr m Snaekolf (personal name)

sofa <søfr~sefr, svaf, sváfu, sofinn> vb (IV) to sleep

sofna <-að-> vb (1) to fall asleep; vera sofnaðr have fallen asleep

sokkr <-s, -ar> m sock, stocking; einir sokkar a pair of socks

soltinn adj hungry (see also svelta)

sonargjǫld n pl wergeld, ransom, or compensation for a dead son

son acc sg of sonr

son var nom of sonr

sonarsonr m grandson

sonr <dat syni, gen sonar, pl synir, acc sonu> m son

Sóknadalr m Soknadale (place name)

sól <dat sól~sólu> f sun; day

sólskin n sunshine

sómi m an honor

Sótanes n Sotaness (place name)

sótti 3sg past of sœkja

sóttu 3pl past of sœkja

spaðimspade, shovel

spakara comp adv of adj spakr more wisely

spakr <f spǫk, n spakt, comp spakari, superl spakastr> adj wise

spá <-ði, spát> vb (2)to prophesy, fortell

spánn (also spónn) <dat spæni, gen spánar, pl spænir, acc spænir> m chip, shaving; spoon

spekð (also spekt) f peace; wisdom

speki f wisdom

spekingr <-s, -ar> m wise person, sage

spekt (also spekð) f peace; wisdom

speni <-a, -ar> m teat, udder

spenum dat pl of speni

spilla <-ti, -tr> vb (2) [w dat] to spoil, destroy

spillirmspoiler; spillir bauga spoiler of rings, generous prince

spinna <spinnr, spann, spunnu, spunninn> vb (III)to spin

spjótnspear, lance

Spjútr <-s> m Spjut (personal name)

sporntrack, trail, footprint; step, foothold

spónn var of spánn

spretta <sprettr, spratt, spruttu, sprottinn> vb (III) to spring up, burst forth; start, spring; sprout

springa <springr, sprakk, sprungu, sprunginn> vb (III) to jump, spring; issue forth; burst; die from overexertion or grief

spurði 3sg past of spyrja

spurðusk 3pl past mid of spyrja

spyrja <spurði, spurðr> vb (3) to ask; hear, hear of, learn, be informed of, find out; spyrja til [e-s] have news of [sb], learn of [sb]; spyrja [e-n] at [e-u] ask [sb] about [sth]; spyrjask mid

spyrr 2/3sg pres of spyrja

spýta <-tti, -ttr> vb spit

spýttu 3pl past of spýta

spǫrr <pl sparvar> m sparrow

staddr (ppart of steðja) placed, present; situated

staðr <dat stað~staði, gen staðar, pl staðir> m stead, parcel of land; place, spot; abode, dwelling

stafr <gen -s, pl stafar~stafir> m wooden staff, stick; pole, timber

stalli <-a, -ar> m altar (heathen)

stallr <-s, -ar> m stall; pedestal

standa <stendr, stóð, stóðu, staðinn> vb (VII) to stand; stay, remain; stand, stick; rest, stop; befit, become; catch, overtake; standa af [e-u] be caused by [sth]; standa undir [e-u] be subject to [sth]; standa undir [e-t] support, approve of [sth]; standa við [e-u] withstand [sth]; standa yfir last

stanga <-að-> vb (1) to ram, (head)butt, gore (of cattle); stangask mid butt each other

starf n work

steði <gen steðja> m anvil

steðja <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to stop; fix, settle

stefna <-di, -dr> vb (2) to aim at, go in a certain direction; call, call together, summon

stefna f direction, course; meeting; appointment; summons

steikja <-ði~ti, -ðr~tr> vb (2) to roast

steina <-di, -dr> vb (2) to paint

Steinbjǫrn <gen -bjarnar> m Steinbjorn, Stone-Bear (personal name)

steinn <-s, -ar> m stone; cave or stone dwelling; poet precious stone, jewel

Steinn <-s> m Stein (place name) Stone

steint ppart of steina; steint mjǫk fully painted

stela <stelr, stal, stálu, stolinn> (IV) vb tosteal

sterkastr superl adj of sterkr

sterkr <comp sterkari, superl sterkastr> adj strong

Stiklastaðir m pl Stiklastad (place name)

stikublígr m stick-gazer, miser (nickname)

stinnr adj stiff, unbending, strong

stirðr <n stirt> adj stiff, rigid; harsh, severe

stirt adv harshly

stíga <stígr, sté~steig, stigu, stiginn> vb (I) to step, tread; stíga á hest mount a horse

stjarna <gen stjǫrnu, pl stjǫrnur> f star

stjórna <-að> vb (1) [w dat] to rule over, govern, command

stjórnar 2/3 sg pres of stjórna

stjórnsamr adj ambitious, overbearing

stofa f stove room, a room in a long house, secondary to the eldaskáli and warmed by a stove of flat stones; served as a living room, where women worked the looms, families sat in the evenings, and feasts were held

stokkr <-s, -ar> m trunk or log of wood; wooden beam; base under an anvil

stolinn ppart of stela


stóð 1/3sg past of standa

stóðu 3pl past of standa

stóll <-s, -ar> m stool, chair; bishop’s see; king’s throne or residence

stólkonungr <-s, -ar> m ‘throne-king’, emperor

stórilla adv very badly

stórlátr adj proud, haughty, arrogant

stórlæti n pride; overbearing; liberality

stórmannligr adj magnificent, grand

stórmennska f magnanimity

stórmerkinpl great wonders

stórr <f stór, n stórt; comp stœrri, superl stœrstr> adj big

strandhǫggnshore raid, piracy; høggva strandhǫgg engage in piracy

stórum m dat sg, all dat pl of stórr

Strandir f pl Strandir (place name), the Strands

straumr <gen straums, pl straumar> m stream

strá <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to strew, spread

strengja <-da, -dr> vb (2) to swear solemnly; string tight

strjúka <strýkr, strauk, struku, strokinn> vb (II) to stroke, rub, wipe; caress; smooth, brush

strǫnd <dat strǫndu~strǫnd, gen strandar, pl strendr~strandir> f strand, coast, shore; border, edge

stund f a while, a time; hour

stundum … stundum conj sometimes … sometimes, at times … at times

stýra <-ði, -t> vb (4)[w dat] to steer, command; rule, govern; manage

stýrandi m ruler

stýrimaðr (pl stýrimenn) m captain, steersman

stœrri comp adj of stórr bigger

stǫðlinum = stǫðli + inum, dat sg of stǫðull

stǫðull <dat stǫðli> m milking pen (for cows)

stǫðva <-að-> vb (1) to stop, halt

stǫkk 1/3sg past of støkkva

støkkva <støkkr, stǫkk, stukku, stokkinn> vb (III) to spring, burst, leap; be sprinkled

stǫng <stangar, stangir~stengr> f staff, pole

stǫnguðusk see stangask

suðr <-rs> n south

suðr adv south, southwards

Suðreyjarfpl the Hebrides (from a Norwegian perspective, lit the South Isles)

Suðri m Sudri (mythological name) South, dwarf who holds up the sky

Suðrlǫnd n pl the Southlands, Germany

Suðrmaðr m South-man, southerner; a German, a Saxon

Suðr-Rygirnir m pl South Rogalanders

suðrœnn adj southern

sultr <-ar> m hunger, famine

sumar <pl sumur> n summer; um sumarit in the summer; hvert sumar every summer

sumir m nom pl of sumr

sumr adj pron some

sumra <-að> vb (1) to draw near summer

sumur n nom/acc pl of sumar

sundfœrr adj able to swim; sundfœrr of sæ sea-worthy, lit able to swim over the sea

sundr adv asunder

sunna f sun

sunnan adv from the south

SunnudalrmSunnudal (place name)

Surtr m Surt, the lord of Múspellsheimr

<acc þá, dat þeir(r)i, gen þeir(r)ar> f sg dem of that (one)

Súðvirki n Southwark (place name)

SúlkimSulki (personal name)

súpa <sýpr, saup, supu, sopinn> vb (II) to sip, drink; take a sip

svaf 1/3sg past of sofa

svalr adj cool

svaltz var of svalzt

svalzt 2sg past of svelta

svanr <-s, -ir> m swan

Svanr m Svan, Swan (personal name)

svar <pl svǫr> n answer, reply

svara <-að-> vb (1) [w dat] to answer

svardagi moath

Svartálfheimr mSvartalfheim (mythological name) world of the dark elves

svartr <f svǫrt, n svart> adj black

Svartr m Svart (personal name) Black

svá adv so, thus; such; then; so (denoting degree); svá at such that, with the result that; svá sem so as, as; svá mikill at so great

sveinn <-s, -ar> m boy, lad; servant; page

Sveinn tjúguskegg <gen Sveins> m Svein Forkbeard, king of Denmark (987–1014)

sveit <pl sveitir> f group or body of men; troop, band, company; region, district

sveiti m sweat, blood

svelgja <svelgr, svalg, sulgu, sólginn> vb (III) ti swallow

svelta <sveltr, svalt, sultu, soltinn> [w dat] vb (III) to starve, die (of starvation); suffer hunger; svelta hungri die of hunger

sverðn sword

sverðsegg f sword’s edge

sverja <svarði, svarðr or sverr, sór, sóru, svarinn> vb (VI) swear (an oath)

svimma <svimmr, svamm, summu, summinn> vb (III) to swim

svipan f swing, blow

Svipdagr <-s> m Svipdag (personal name)

svipstund f moment

svipta <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to sweep; throw, fling

Svíaland n Sweden (see also Svíþjóð)

Svíar m pl the Swedes

svíða <svíðr, sveið, sviðu, sviðinn> vb (I) to singe, burn

svíkja <svíkr, sveik, sviku, svikinn> vb (I) to betray, deceive, cheat, defraud

Svívǫr f Svivor, a giantess killed by Thor

Svíþjóð f Sweden

svǫr nom/acc pl of svar

svǫrt see svartr

syngja (also syngva)<syngr, sǫng, sungu, sunginn> vb (III) to sing

syni dat of sonr

synir dat pl of sonr

syrgja <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to mourn

systir <acc/dat/gen systur, pl systr> f sister

sýna <-di, -dr> vb (2) to show; sýnask mid seem, appear

sýndisk 2/3sg past of sýnask

sýnum adv by sight, apparently

sæhafa indecl adj sea-tossed, driven off one’s course; verða sæhafa be driven off-course

Sæhrímnir m Sæhrimnir, the boar who feeds the warriors in Valhǫll

sæll <comp sælli,superlsælstr>adj fortunate, happy

sær <acc sæ, dat sævi~sæ, gen sævar> m sea

sæta <-tta, -tt> vb (4) [w dat] to wait in ambush, waylay; undergo, suffer; bring about, cause

sætt <pl sættir, dat sáttum, gen sátta> f settlement, reconciliation, atonement, agreement; at sætt as atonement

sætta <-tti, -ttr> vb (2) to reconcile; make peace among; sættask mid come to terms, settle, agree, be reconciled

sættusk 3pl past mid of sætta

sœkja <sótti, sóttr> vb (3) to seek; pursue; sœkja til [e-s] seek out [sb]

sœmð f honor

sœnskr adj Swedish

sǫgu see saga; sǫgunni in the saga

sǫk <gen sakar; pl sakar~sakir> f cause, reason, sake; fyrir [e-s] sakar on account of, because of [sth]

sǫk f thing, case

søkkva <søkkr, sǫkk, sukku, sokinn> vb (III) to sink

sǫm fnom sg & n nom/acc pl of samr

sǫmu str n dat sg, wk f acc/dat/gen sg & all wk nom/acc/gen pl of samr

sǫngr <-s, -var> m song

— T —

taka <tekr, tók, tóku, tekinn> vb (VI) to take, catch, seize; take hold of, grasp; reach, touch; [w inf] begin; impers [e-t] taka af [sth] comes loose, comes off; [sth] ceases; taka arf inherit; taka [e-t] á [e-u] touch [sth] with [sth]; taka [e-m] fegins hendi receive [sb] gladfully, joyfully; taka í sundr cut asunder; taka í hafi take to sea; taka [e-n] hǫndum seize or capture [sb]; taka upp [e-t] pick up [sth]; taka við [e-m] take in, receive, or welcome [sb] into one’s house; taka við [e-u] receive, take possession of, acquire, inherit [sth]; taka til begin; takask mid begin; take place; behave takask til happen

talntalk, parley, conversation

tala <-að-> vb (1) to talk, speak; tala við [e-n] speak to [sb]

Tanngnjóstr m ‘Tooth Gnasher,’ one of the goats that pulls Thor’s chariot

Tanngrisnir m ‘Snarl Tooth,’ one of the goats that pulls Thor’s chariot

teinn <-s, -ar> m twig, spit, stake

tekinn ppart of taka

telgja <-ði, -ðr>vb (2) to shape, hew, carve, cut

telja <talði~taldi, talið~taldr~talinn> vb (3) to count; reckon, consider

temja <temr, tamði~tamdi, tamði~tamdr, taminn> vb (3)to tame; train, exercise

Temps f the river Thames

tigr <gen tigar; pl tigir, acc tigu> m ten; a decade

til prep [w gen] to; till; for (of use); for (of object, intention); with respect to ;alt er til vápna var everything that could be used as a missle; brjóta legg til mergjar break a leg to get at the marrow; til vista var eigi gott they were not well off for provisions

til adv too (of excess)

til handa prep [w dat] for

tilkall <pl tilkǫll> n claim

tillagagóðr adj well-disposed, reliable

tillit n look, glance (cf. líta)

tíð <pl -ir> f time; hour

tíðara comp adv of títt more frequently, more quickly

tíðast superl adv of títt, quickest, most frequent; sem tíðast immediately

tíðendi var of tíðindi

tíðindi (also tíðendi) n pl news, events, tidings

tíðr <f tíð, n títt> adj frequent

tíðum adv often

títt adv quickly, frequently

tími m time

tírœðr adj counted by tens, ten tens

tíu <ord tíundi, tenth > num ten

tívarmpl gods (plural only, in poetic usage)

tjalda <-að-> vb (1) to pitch a tent

tjaldatppart of tjalda, tented; Skipit flaut tjaldat ‘The ship floated tented [with a sail cloth over the mast serving as a tent]

toddi m bit, piece, morsel (nickname)

topt <-ir> f homestead; the walls or foundations of a (former) building

ToptavǫllrmToptavoll (place name)

tók 1/3sg past of taka

tóku 3pl past of taka

tólf <ord tólfti, twelfth > num twelve

tólfræðr adj counted by twelves, twelve tens

tómliga adv slowly

tómr adj slow

tré <dat tré, gen trés, pl tré, dat trjám, gen trjá> n tree; wood

tréfótr m pegleg; ‘Tree-Foot’ (nickname)

tréna <-að-> vb (1) to dry up

trjá see tré

troða <treðr~trøðr, trað, tráðu, treðinn> vb (V) to tread; cram, pack; troðask mid crowd upon each other

troll (also trǫll) n monstrous inhuman creature; human with troll characteristics

trollkona f troll-wife, giantess

trúa (also trú) <trú> f faith, word of honor; (religious) belief

trúa <-ði, trúat> vb (4) to believe

trúr adj true

tryggvimTrue, Faithful, Loyal (nickname)

trǫll var of troll

tungaftongue; language, tongue; tongue of land at the meeting of two rivers

tungl n moon

tuttugu <ord tuttugandi~tuttugundi, twentieth> num twenty

tún n enclosure, farmstead; hayfield, homefield; poet dwellings, precincts

tvau n nom/acc of tveir

tveir <f tvær, n tvau, acc m tvá, dat tveim(r), gen tveggja, ord annarr, second> num two

typpa <-ti~typði, -tr~typðr> vb (2) to top, crown

týja <3sg pres týr, 3sg past týði> vb (2) to do, work; [w dat] help, assist; impers avail, týði ekki it was of no avail

týna <-di, -dr> vb to lose, forget, mistake; týnask mid to perish

tæla <-di, -dr> vb (2) to trick, betray

tœki 3sg/pl past subjunct of taka

tǫnn <gen tannar, pl tenn~tennr~teðr> f tooth

— U

Uðr var of Unnr

ulfr var of úlfr

ull <dat ullu> f wool

ullarlagðr m tuft of wool

um prep [w acc] about; around; across; for, because of; beyond; during, for, in, by (time); [w datin poetic and older texts] over; by, in (time); [w vb of motion] over, past, beyond, across; um alla hluti in every way; fram um or um fram [w vb of motion] on past, up beyond, out over; um dag one day; um nætr by night; um sumarit during the summer; um fram adv in addition; um sinnsakar for this once

um adv, pre-verbal particle (untranslatable, but carrying connotation of completion)

umframprep beyond, more than

um þvert adv (diagonally) across

umhverfis prep [w acc] round, all around; adv there about, all around

una <-ði/di, unat, subjunct ynði> vb (4) to be content in a place; to like/be satisfied Gullharaldr undi þá miklu verr enn áðr GullHarald liked this much less than before; enjoy, be happy, be content with a thing unðu þeir þar litla hríð they were content there only a little while; þeir undu illa sínum hlut they very much disliked their lot; dwell, stay, abide, live at; [w dat]

und var of undir

undan prep [w dat] from under, from beneath; away from; just off, near to

undarliga adv strangely; weirdly

undarligr adj strange; weird

undir (also und) prep [w acc/dat] under, underneath; [w dat] under, depending on; undir sér with him

undirhyggjumaðr m guileful or deceitul person

unðu 3pl past of una

ungr <comp yngri, superl yngstr> adj young

unna <ann, unni, unnt~unnat> pret-pres vb togrant, allow, bestow; [w dat] love; unna [e-m] [e-s] let [sb] have [sth]

unninn /unnin/ unnit ppart of vinna;

Unnr (also Uðr) <acc Unni, dat Unni, gen Unnar> f Unn (personal name)

unnu 3pl past of vinna

uns var of unz

unz (also uns) conj until, till

upp adv up, upward (motion toward)

upphaf n beginning; honor, advancement

upphiminn m heaven (above)

upphǫf pl of upphaf

uppi adv up (position); vera uppi live, last

upplenzkr adj of or pertaining to the Uplands (Norwegian highlands)

Upplǫnd n pl Uplands (place name) Norwegian highlands

Uppsalir m pl Uppsala (place name)

Urðarbrunnr m Urdarbrunn, the Well of Fate

Urðr f Urd, Fate, that whi­­ch should become, one of the three Norns

urðu 3pl past of verða

uxi (also oxi) <acc/dat/gen uxa, pl yxn~øxn, dat yxnum~øxnum, gen yxna~øxna> m ox

Ú —

Úlfarr m Ulfar (personal name)

úlfr <-s, -ar> m wolf

úr var of ór

út adv out, outward (motion toward), out to Iceland

útan adv from outside; from abroad, from Iceland, from without; (without motion) outside

útanverðr adj outward, outside, outer part of

útar comp adv of út farther out

útarliga adv far out

Útgarðr m Utgard, the Outer Enclosures, the home of the giants (place name)

úti adv out (place), outside, out-of-doors

útlagi m outlaw

útlendr adj foreign

— V —

vaða <veðr, óð, óðu, vaðinn> vb (VI) wade (through water); rush (at an opponent)

vagn <-s, -ar> m wagon, vehicle

vaka <-ti, vakat> vb (4) to be awake

vakði (also vakti)1/3sg past of vekja

vakna <-að-> intrans vb (1) to awake, get up

Valaskjálf f Valaskjalf, Odin’s silver-roofed hall


Valdres n Valdres, highland region in Norway

ValhǫllfValhalla, the Hall of the Slain

Valir m pl inhabitants (esp Celtic) of France

valkyrjafchooser of the slain, valkyrie

Valland n France

valr m corpses on the battlefield, the slain

valr <-s, -ir> m hawk

vandahús n wicker house

vandamál n complicated case, difficult matter

vandi m habit; custom

vandliga adv carefully

vandr adj difficult

Vanir m pl one of the two major groups of gods

vann 1/3sg past of vinna

vanr adj accustomed, wont; vanr [e-u] accustomed to [sth]; usual

var 1/3sg past of vera

varð 1/3sg past of verða

varðveita <-tta, -ttr> vb (2)to keep, preserve, watch, defend

vargr <-s, -ar> m wolf

varla adv hardly, scarcely

varmr adj warm

varr <f vǫr, n vart> adj aware; cautious, wary

vas (older form of var) 1/3sg past of vera

vatn <gen vatns~vatz~vaz, pl vǫtn> n water, fresh water; lake

vaxa <vex, óx, óxu, vaxinn> vb (VI) to grow

1/3sg past of vega

vágr <-s, -ar> m bay, inlet; wave, sea

Vágr m Vág (place name), ‘Bay’

vágskorinn ppart vágr + skorinn, bay-cut, with bays or inlets

vágu 3pl past of vega

ván <pl vánir> f hope, expectation, prospect

vándr adj (qualitatively) bad, wretched; (morally) bad, wicked

vápn n weapon

vápnaðr ppart armed

Vápnafjǫrðr m Vapnafjord, Weapon’s Fjord

vápndjarfr adj fearless, gallant, daring in battle; inn vápndjarfasti the most fearless in battle

vápnfœrr adj skilled in arms


vár gen of vér our (pl)

Vár f perhaps a goddess associated with pledges; Várar hendi by the hand of Var

vára <-að> vb (1) to draw near spring

várar f pl oath, solemn vow

várr poss pl pron our

váru 3pl past of vera

várþing n spring assembly

veð <dat pl veðjum, gen veðja> n pledge

veðrnweather; wind; storm

Veðrfǫlnir m Vedrfolnir, the hawk which sits between the eyes of the eagle atop Yggdrasill

vefa <vefr, óf~vaf, ófu~váfu, ofinn> vb (IV) to weave

vega <vegr, vá, vágu, veginn> vb (V) to kill, slay; fight

veggr <dat vegg, gen -jar~-s, -ir> m wall

vegr <gen vegar~vegs, pl vegir~vegar, acc vegu~vega> m way, road; mode, manner; direction; side

veiða <-ddi, -ddr> vb (2) to catch; hunt

veiðr <acc/dat veiði, gen veiðar, pl veiðar> f hunting, fishing, catch

veit 1/3 pres sg of vita

veita <-tti, -ttr> vb (2) to grant, give, offer; assist; veita [e-m] atgǫngu attack [sb]; veita [e-m] atlǫgu attack [sb]; veita atróðr set out rowing (toward); [e-m] veita betr [sb] has the better of it; veita tilkall make a claim

veizla f feast, banquet

veiztu = veizt þú 2sg pres of vita, you know

vekja <vakði~vakti, vakiðr~vaktr~vakinn> trans vb (3) to wake, awake; vekja [e-n] upp wake [sb] up

vel <comp betr, superl bezt~bazt> adv well; very; vel at sér gifted, capable

velli dat sg of vǫllr

vera <er, var, váru, verit> vb (V) to be; last; vera fyrir lead; vera þar fyrir be there present; vera vel at kominn be welcome; vera við be present, take part in

verða <verðr, varð, urðu, orðinn> vb (III) tobecome, happen; have to; verða at [e-u] become [sth]; verða at grjóti turn to stone; verða at sœtt reconcile; verða sæhafa be driven off-course (when sailing)

Verðandi f Verdandi (mythological name) Becoming or Happening, one of the three norns

verðr adj [w gen] worthy; verðr [e-s] worthy of [sth]

ver-gjarn adj eager for men, lustful

verit ppart of vera (n)

verja <varði, variðr~varðr> defend, verja [e-u] keep [sth] away; verjask mid defend oneself

verk n work

verpa <verpr, varp, urpu, orpinn> vb (III) to throw

verr <-s, -ar> m [poet] husband; [pl] men

verr comp adv of illa, worse

verri comp adj of illr and vándr, worse

verst superl adv of illa worst; sem verst as bad as it can be, as bad as possible

verstr superl adj of illr and vándr worst

verǫld f world

vesa var of vera

vesall adj pathetic, miserable, wretched

vestan adv from the west

Vestfoldf Vestfold (place name)

vestr <gen vestrs> n west; adv westward, vestr um haf, west over the ocean (to Britain)

vestri comp adj of vestr more westerly

Vestri m Vestri (mythological name) dwarf who holds up the sky

Vestribyggð f Western Settlement (place name), part of Norse Greenland

Vestrlǫnd n pl the Weslands, the British Isles and France

vestrvegir m pl the west, i.e., toward the British Isles and beyond, lit the western ways

vestrœnn adj western

vetr <dat vetri, gen vetrar, pl nom and acc  vetr> m winter; um vetrinn for the winter

vetra <-að> vb (1) to draw near winter

vexti dat of vǫxtr

m son of Bor and Bestla, brother of Odin

Véfastr <-s> m Vefast (personal name)

vélfdeceit, trick

véla <-ti, -tr> vb (2) to defraud, betray, seduce

vér <acc/dat oss, gen vár> pron we (pl)

við prep [w acc] with; at, by, close to; according to, after; [w dat] against; toward; with; in exchange for, for

viðartaug <pl -ar> f flexible and tough twig

viðr <gen viðar, pl viðir, acc viðu> m tree; forest, wood; timber

viðtaka <gen viðtǫku, pl viðtǫkur> f reception

vika f week

Vilhjálmr m William (personal name); Vilhjálmr bastarðr m William the Conqueror, illegitimate son of Robert Longsword


Vili m Vili, son of Bor and Bestla, brother of Odin

vilja <2/3sg pres vill, vildi, viljat> vb (4) to wish, want

vil 1sg pres of vilja

vill 2/3sg pres of vilja

viltu = vill + þú

vinaboð n feast for one’s friends

vinátta f friendship (esp a sincere, personal friendship)

vinda <vindr, vatt, undu, undinn> vb (III) totwist, wring, squeeze; wind, hoist; turn, swing; vindask mid make a sudden movement, turn oneself away

vindr <gen -s~-ar> m wind, air

vinfenginfriendship (esp a contractual alliance)

vingóðr <f vingoð, n vingott> adj good towards one’s friends, friendly

Vingólf n Vingolf, ‘Friendly Quarters’; one of the halls of the gods where righteous men go after death

Ving-Þórr m poet brandishing-Thor

vinna <vinnr, vann, unnu, unninn/unnin/unnit> vb (III) to gain, win; work; perform, accomplish; vinna herskap á [e-m] win battles against [sb]; mid vinnask win or gain for oneself; sá þat at áin var unnnin they saw that the river was taken

vinr <-ar, -ir> m friend

vinsæll adj beloved, popular

virða <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to evaluate, value, appaise

virðingfrespect, value

vissi <3pl> vb see vita

vist f food, provisions; stay; abode

vista <-að-> trans vb (1) lodge, find lodging, furnish with food and provisions; vistask mid intrans lodge, take up lodging, stay

vistuðusk 3pl past of vistask

vitnsense, wit, intelligence, understanding

vit <acc/dat okkr, gen okkar> pron we (dual)

vita <veit, vissi, vitaðr> pret-pres vb toknow; vita fram or vita fyrir know the future, foresee

vitandi pres part of vita, knowing

vitja <-að-> vb (1) [w gen] to go to a place; visit

vitr <acc vitran> adj wise, intelligent

vitrari comp adj of vitr wiser

vitrastr superl adj of vitr wisest, most intelligent

víða adv widely, far and wide

víðfrægr adj widely-renowned, famous

víðr adj wide

víg n battle; homicide, manslaughter, killing

vígja <-ði, -ðr> vb (2) to consecrate, hallow

vígr adj able to fight; vígr vel well-skilled in arms

vígvǫllr m battlefield

vík <gen víkr, pl víkr> f bay

Vík f Vik, Bay (place name)

Víkin f the Vík region, Oslo fjord

víking <pl -ar> f raid; í víking on a raid

víkingavǫrðr <-varðar, -verðir> m Viking-Guard (coast guard against Vikings)

víkingr <-s, -ar> m Viking

víkja <víkr, veik, viku, vikinn> vb (I) [w dat] to move, turn; impers nú víkr sǫgunni now the saga shifts

Víkrmaðr (pl Víkrmenn) m man from Vik

Vínland n Vinland (place name) ‘Wine Country,’ region along the North American Atlantic; Vínland it góða ‘Wineland the Good,’ same


Vísburr <-s> m Visbur (personal name)

vísindi n pl knowledge, intelligence

víss adj certain; wise; known

víst adv certainly

vísundr <-s, -ar> m bison

vítt adv far

vægð f mercy, forbearance

vægja <-ði, -t> vb (4) [w dat] to spare; give way to

vængr <-jar, -ir> m wing

vænn <comp vænni, superl vænstr> adj beautiful, fine, handsome; likely, to be expected; hopeful, promising

vænta <-ti, vænt> vb (2) [w gen] to expect, hope for

væri 3sg & pl past subjunct of vera

Væringi <pl Væringjar> m Varangian, the name of the Norse warriors who served as bodyguards to the emperors of Constantinople in the Varangian Guard

vætr n indecl nothing

vættr <dat vætti, gen vættar, pl vættir> f creature, being; supernatural being, spirit

vǫðvi mmuscle

Vǫggr m Vogg (personal name)

vǫllr <dat velli, gen vallar, pl vellir, acc vǫllu, gen valla> m field, plain

Vǫllr m Voll, field (place name)

vǫluspá f the sybil’s prophecy

vǫlva <gen vǫlu, pl vǫlur> f seeress, sybil

vǫrðr <dat verði, gen varðar, pl verðir, acc vǫrðu, gen varða> m warden; coastguard, watchman

vǫrr <dat verri, gen varrar, pl verrir, acc vǫrru> m pull of an oarvǫxtr <dat vexti, gen vaxtar, pl vextir, acc vǫxtu> m size, stature, growth; shape

— Y —

yðarr (also yðvarr) poss pl pron your

yðr acc/dat of pl pron þér, you

yðru n dat of yðarr

yður f nom sg and n nom/acc pl of yðarr

yð(v)ar gen of pl pron þér

yðvarr var of yðarr

yfir prep [w acc/dat] over, above, across; adv over

Yggr m Ygg (mythological name) ‘Terrible One’, a name of Odin

YggdrasillmYggdrasil, name of the World Tree

ykkar gen of dual pron þit

ykkarr poss dual pron your

ykkr acc/dat of dual pron þit, you

ylgr <-jar> f she-wolf

Ymir m Ymir (personal name)

Ynglingar m pl Ynglings (personal name) Swedish-Norwegian dynasty; descendants of the god Yngvi

yngri comp adj of ungr younger

yngstr superl of ungr youngest

yrkja <orti, ortr> vb (3) to work, esp cultivate; compose (verses); yrkja á [e-t] set about; mid attack one another, yrkisk á um [e-t] it begins

Yrsaf Yrsa (personal name)

yxnum, yxna see uxi


ýrit (also œrit) adv sufficiently

ýtri comp adj outer

ýztr superl adj outermost


Zóe dróttning in ríka f Empress Zoe the Great

— Þ —

þaðan adv from there, thence; þaðan frá from that point onward

þagði 3sg past of þegja

þakka <-að> vb (1) [w dat] to thank

þangat adv to there, thither (motion toward)

Þangbrandr <-s> Thangbrand (personal name)

þann acc sg of dem pron

þannug (also þannig) adv thither, that way (= þann + veg); thus

þar adv there; þar sem conj where

þarf 1/3sg pres of þurfa

þat <acc þat, dat því, gen þess>pron it; n nom/acc of dem that (one)

þau <acc þau, dat þeim, gen þeira~þeirra> n pl pron they; those (ones)

þá adv then, at that time

þá f acc sg of ; m acc pl of þeir

þá er conj when

þás = þá es (þá er)

þáttr <dat þætti, gen þáttar, pl þættir, acc þáttu> m tale, short

þegar adv at once, immediately; already; þegar á morgin first thing in the morning; þegar á unga aldri already by a young age; þegar um haustit that very autumn; conj as soon as, when

þegja <þegir, þagði, þagat> vb (3) to be silent, keep one’s mouth shut

þegnmsubject; freeman, a good man

þegnskapr <gen -ar> m generosity, open-handedness

þeim m dat sg of dem that (one) & all dat pl of þeir/þær/þau they; those (ones)

þeima (also þessum) m dat sg & all dat pl of þessi

þeir <acc þá, dat þeim, gen þeira~þeirra> pron they; those (ones) (m pl)

þeira (also þeirra) pron gen pl of þeir/þær/þau they; their

þekkja <-ti~þekti~þekði~þátti, -tr~þektr~þekðr> vb (3) to perceive, notice; know, recognize; þekkjast mid know one another

þennamacc sg of þessi

þess m/n gen sg of /þat

þessi (also sjá) <f þessi, n þetta, m acc sg þenna, m dat sg & all dat pl þessum~þeima, m/n gen sg þessa, m nom pl þessir, all gen pl þessa~þessar(r)a, f acc sg þessa, f dat sg þessi~þessar(r)i, f gen sg þessar~þessar(r)ar, n dat sg þessu~þvísa, n nom/acc pl þessi> dem pron this, these

þetta n nom/acc sg of þessi

þér <acc/dat yðr, gen yðarr~yðvarr> pl pron you; þér frequent dat of þú; see ér

Þiðrandi m Thidrandi (personal name)

þiggja <þiggr, þá, þágu, þeginn> vb (V) to accept; receive; accept lodgings

þinglogi adj indecl engagement breaker

þik acc of þú

þing n assembly, lit thing

þingmaðr (pl þingmenn) m thingman, follower of an Icelandic chieftain

ÞingvǫllrmThing-Plain (place name)

þinn <þín, þitt> poss pron your (sg)

þit <acc/dat ykkr, gen ykkar> dual pron you

þín gen of þú

þjóð <dat þjóðu, gen þjóðar, pl þjóðir> f people, nation

þjófr m thief

þjófsaugu n pl thief’s eyes

þjóna <-að> vb (1) [w dat] to serve

þola <þoldi, þolt~þolat> vb (4) to tolerate, endure

þollr m tree; fir tree

þora <-ði, þorat> vb (4) to dare

Þorbjǫrg <-bjargar> f Thorbjorg (personal name)

Þorbrandssynir m pl sons of Thorbrand

Þorfastr <-s> m Thorfast (personal name)

Þorfinnr <-s> m Thorfinn (personal name)

Þorgeirr <-s> m Thorgeir (personal name); Þorgeirr flǫskubakr Thorgeir Flask-Back

Þorgerðr <acc/dat Þorgerði, gen Þorgerðar> f Thorgerd (personal name)

Þorgils <gen Þorgils> m Thorgils (personal name); Þorgils Þorsteinssonar Thorgils, son of Thorstein (personal name)

Þorgrímr m Thorgrim (personal name)

Þorkell <-s> m Thorkel (personal name); Þorkell Geitisson m Thorkel, son of Geitir

Þorleikr <-s> m Thorleik (personal name)

Þormóðr <-ar> m Thormod (personal name)

Þorsteinn <-s> m Thorstein (personal name); Þorsteinn hvíti m Thorstein the White

Þorvarðr <-s> m Thorvard (personal name)

þó adv yet, though, nevertheless

þó 1/3sg past of þvá

ÞórafThora (personal name)

Þórarinn <-s> m Thorarin (personal name)

Þórdís <-ar> m Thordis (personal name)

Þórðr <-ar> m Thord (personal name)

Þórir <gen Þóris> m Thorir (personal name)

Þórólfr <-s> m Thorolf (personal name)

Þórr <dat Þór~Þóri, gen Þórs> m Thor, god of thunder, husband of Sif, son of Odin and Earth

þótt conj although

þótti 3sg past of þykkja

þóttisk 2/3sg past of þykkjask

þóttu poet = þó at þú

þrasa <3sg pres þrasir> vb (2) be belligerent

þrausk n rummaging

þreifa <-að-> vb (1) touch or feel with one’s hand; þreifask mid fumble, grope

þrekvirki n courageous deed, feat of strength

þrettán <ord þrettándi, thirteenth> num thirteen

þriðjungr <-s> m a third

þriði <f þriðja, n þriðja > ord num third

Þriði m Third, one of the three interrogators of King Gylfi

þrífa <þrífr, þreif, þrifu, þrifinn> vb (I) grasp; þrífa til [e-s] grab hold of [sb/sth]

þrír <f þrjár, n þrjú, acc m þrjá, dat þrim(r), gen þriggja, ord þriði, third > num three

þrír tigir num thirty

þrítugandi ord num thirtieth

þrjámacc pl of þrír

þrjárfnom/acc pl of þrír

þrjú n nom/acc pl of þrír

þrúðugr adj strong, powerful

Þrúðvangar m pl ‘Plains of Strength,’ Thor’s domain

Þrymr <-s> m lord among the giants

þræll <-s, -ar> m thrall, slave

Þrœndalǫg n Trondelag (place name)

Þrǫstr <-s> m Throst (personal name)

þumall <dat þumli, gen þumals, pl þumlar> m thumb

þumlungr <-s, -ar> m thumb (of a glove)

þungr <comp þyngri, superl þyngstr> adj heavy

þunnr adj thin

þurfa <þarf, þurfti, þurftu, þurft> pret-pres vb [aux] need; [w gen] need, have need of

þurft f need, necessity

þurs <dat þursi, gen þurs, pl þursar> m giant, ogre

Þurvi f Thurvi (personal name = OI Þyri)

þú <acc þik, dat þér, gen þín> pron you (sg)

þúsund <-ar, -ir> f thousand, usually long thousand, twelve hundred

þvá <þvær, þó, þógu, þveginn> vb (VI) to wash

þverr adj across; see also um þvert

þverra <þverr, þvarr, þurru, þorrinn> vb (III) to wane, decrease, grow less,

Þvinnill <-s> m Thvinnil, name of a Viking (personal name)

þvíndat of þat

því conj thus, therefore

þvígit = því-gi at [w comp adj] not the; þvígit fleira no more, not much more

þvísa (also þessu) n dat sg of þetta

því at conj for, because

því næst thereupon, then

þvílíkr adj such

þvít = því at

þykkisk 2/3sg past of þykkjask

þykkja <þykkir, þótti, þótt> vb impers (3) seem to be, [w dat subj] to think/believe, seem (to one); þykkjask mid seem to one, think oneself

þykkr <acc þykkvan> adj thick, close

þykkt adv thickly

Þyri f Thyri (personal name)

þýða (-ddi, -ddr) vb (2) to explain, interpret; signify; win over; þýðask [e-n] mid associate with [sb]

þær <acc þær, dat þeim, gen þeira~þeirra> pron f pl they; those (ones)

þættir nom pl of þáttr

þǫkk <gen þakkar, pl þakkir> f thanks

— Æ —

æ adv ever, always, forever

æja <ær, áði, áð> vb (3) to graze; rest

ær <acc/dat á, gen ær, pl ær, dat ám, gen á> f ewe or female sheep (with article ærin, ánn, ánni, ána, pl ærnar, ánum, ánna); ær ok lǫmb ewes and lambs; kýr ok ær cows and ewes; see ásauðr

ærinn adj sufficient

Æsir m pl of áss, one of the two major groups of gods

æti 3sg & pl past subjunct of eiga

ætla <-að-> vb (1) to intend, purpose, mean; think, consider

ætlan f intent

ætlat ppart of ætla

ætt <pl ættir> f family, kindred; generation

ættangrmfamily calamity or misfortune

ætti 3sg & pl past subjunct of eiga ævi f indecl age, time; alla ævi for all time, forever

— Œ —

œðri comp adj higher

œgishjálmr m helm of terror

œpa <-ti, -t> vb (4)to  cry, scream, shout

œrinn (also ýrinn) adj sufficient

œrit adv sufficiently, overly, very

œxla <-ti, -tr> vb (2) tocause increase, multiply

œztr superl adj highest

— Ǫ/Ø —

ǫðlask <-að-> vb (1) to win, earn

ǫðru ndat sg of annarr

ǫðrum m dat sg; all dat pl of annarr

øfri var of efri

øfstr var of efstr

ǫfundarorðn pl slander, words of envy

ǫkkla <-lu> n ankle

Ǫku-Þórr m Thor the Charioteer

ǫl <dat ǫlvi, gen pl ǫlva> n ale, beer

ǫld <dat ǫldu, gen aldar, pl aldir> f age, time; poet man pl mankind, men

ǫldnu wk f acc sg of aldinn

ǫll f nom sg & n nom/acc pl of allr

ǫllu n sg dat; weak m/f/n nom/acc/gen of allr

ǫllum m dat sg, all dat pl of allr

Ǫlvir <gen Ǫlvis> m Olvir (personal name)

ǫnd <dat ǫnd~ǫndu, gen andar, pl andir> f breath; life; spirit, soul

ǫndóttr adj fearsome, terrifying

Ǫndóttr kráka m Ondott Crow (personal name)

ǫnnur fnom sg & n nom/acc pl of annarr

Ǫnundr <-s> m Onund (personal name)

ǫr <gen ǫrvar> f arrow

ørendi var of erendi

ørendislauss adj without effect, purposeless, lit errand-less

ørendislaust adv without purpose, in vain, for nothing; fara ørendislaust go in vain, without a purpose or reason

ǫrlǫgnpl fate

ǫrn <dat erni, gen arnar; pl ernir, acc ǫrnu> m eagle

ǫsku acc/dat/gen sg of aska

øx <acc/dat øxi, gen øxar, pl øxar> f axe

ØxarfjǫrðrmOxarfjord, Axe Fjord (place name)

ǫxl <gen axlar, pl axlir> f shoulder

Øxna-Þórir m Oxen-Thorir (personal name)

Published by Jules William Press

Jules William Press is a small press devoted to publishing the best about the Viking Age, Old Norse, and the Atlantic and Northern European regions. Jules William Press was founded in 2013 to address the needs of modern students, teachers, and self-learners for accessible and affordable Old Norse texts. JWP began by publishing our Viking Language Series, which provides a modern course in Old Norse, with exercises and grammar that anyone can understand. This spirit motivates all of our publications, as we expand our catalogue to include Viking archaeology and history, as well as Scandinavian historical fiction and our Saga Series.

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